1. Schultz, SK, Andreasen, NC. Schizophrenia. Lancet. 1999;353:1425–1430.
2. Pearlson, GD, Marsh, L. Structural brain imaging in schizophrenia: a selective review. Biol Psychiatry. 1999;46:627–649.
3. McCarley, RW, Wible, CG, Frumin, M, et al. MRI anatomy of schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 1999;45:1099–1119.
4. Weinberger, DR, Berman, KF, Zec, RF. Physiological dysfunction of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia, I: regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) evidence. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1986;43:114–124.
5. Andreasen, NC, O'Leary, DS, Flaum, M, et al. Hypofrontality in schizophrenia: distributed dysfunctional circuits in neuroleptic-naive patients. Lancet. 1997;349:1730–1734.
6. Jonides, J, Smith, EE, Koeppe, RA, et al. Spatial working memory in humans as revealed by PET. Nature. 1993;363:623–625.
7. Diwadkar, VA, Carpenter, PA, Just, MA. Collaborative activity between parietal and dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex in dynamic spatial working memory revealed by fMRI. Neuroimage. 2000;12:85–99.
8. Luna, B, Thulborn, KR, Strojwas, MH, et al. Dorsal cortical regions subserving visually guided saccades in humans: an fMRI study. Cereb Cortex. 1998;8:40–47.
9. Fuster, JM. The Prefrontal Cortex: Anatomy, Physiology, and Neuropsychology of the Frontal Lobe. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Raven Press; 1989.
10. Shallice, T. Specific impairments of planning. Philos Trans R Soc Land B Biol Sci. 1982;298:199–209.
11. Selemon, LD, Goldman-Rakic, PS. Common cortical and sub-cortical targets of the dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices in the rhesus monkey: evidence for a distributed neural network subserving spatially guided behavior. J Neurosci. 1988;8:4049–4068.
12. Park, S, Holzman, PS. Schizophrenics show spatial working memory deficits. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1992;49:975–982.
13. Sweeney, J, Luna, B, Srinivasagam, N, et al. Eye tracking abnormalities in schizophrenia: evidence for dysfunction in the frontal eye fields. Biol Psychiatry. 1998;44:698–708.
14. Gottesman, II, Shields, J. Schizophrenia: The Epigenetic Puzzle. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press; 1982.
15. Parnas, J, Cannon, TD, Jacobsen, B, et al. Lifetime DSM-III-R diagnostic outcomes in the offspring of schizophrenic mothers, results from the Copenhagen high-risk study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1993;50:707–714.
16. Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L, Squires-Wheeler, E, Hilldoff-Adamo, UH, et al. The New York High-Risk Project. Psychoses and cluster A personality disorders in offspring of schizophrenic parents at 23 years of follow-up. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1995;52:857–865.
17. Amminger, GP, Pape, S, Rock, D, et al. Relationship between childhood behavioral disturbance and later schizophrenia in the New York High-Risk Project. Am J Psychiatry. 1999;156:525–530.
18. Weinberger, DR. From neuropathology to neurodevelopment. Lancet. 1995;346:552–557.
19. Murray, RM, Lewis, SW. Is schizophrenia a neurodevelopmental disorder? Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1987;295:681–682.
20. Weinberger, DR. Implications of normal brain development for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1987;44:660–669.
21. Cannon, TD, Marco, E. Structural brain abnormalities as indicators of vulnerability to schizophrenia [review]. Schizophr Bull. 1994;20:89–102.
22. Murray, RM, Fearon, P. The developmental ‘risk factor’ model of schizophrenia. J Psychiatr Res. 1999;33:497–499.
23. Cornblatt, B, Obuchowski, M, Roberts, S, Pollack, S, Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L. Cognitive and behavioral precursors of schizophrenia. Deo Psychopathol. 1999;11:487–508.
24. Park, S, Holzman, PS, Goldman-Rakic, PS. Spatial working memory deficits in the relatives of schizophrenic patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1995;52:821–828.
25. Keshavan, MS, Anderson, S, Pettegrew, JW. Is schizophrenia due to excessive synaptic pruning in the prefrontal cortex? J Psychiatr Res. 1994;28:239–265.
26. Funahashi, S, Bruce, CJ, Goldman-Rakic, PS. Dorsolateral prefrontal lesions and oculomotor delayed-response performance: evidence for mnemonic “scotomas”. J Neurosci. 1993;13:1479–1497.
27. Sweeney, JA, Mintun, MA, Kwee, S, et al. Positron emission tomography study of voluntary saccadic eye movements and spatial working memory. J Neurophysiol. 1996;75:454–468.
28. Sweeney, JA, Strojwas, MH, Mann, JJ, Thase, ME. Prefrontal and cerebellar abnormalities in major depression: evidence from oculomotor studies. Biol Psychiatry. 1998;43:584–594.
29. Cornblatt, BA, Keilp, JG. Impaired attention, genetics, and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 1994;20:31–46.
30. Milner, B. Effects of different brain lesions on card sorting. Arch Neurol. 1963;9:90–100.
31. Gooding, DC, Kwapil, TR, Tallent, KA. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test deficits in schizotypic individuals. Schizophr Res. 1999;40:201–209.
32. Buchanan, RW, Heinrichs, DW. The Neurological Evaluation Scale (NES): a structured instrument for the assessment of neurological signs in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 1989;27:335–350.
33. Cohen, J, Cohen, P. Applied Multiple Regression/Correlation analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. 2nd ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1983.
34. Kraemer, HC, Yesavage, JA, Taylor, JL, Kupfer, D. How can we learn about developmental processes from cross-sectional studies, or can we? Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157:163–171.
35. Keshavan, MS, Montrose, DM, Pierri, JN, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy in offspring at risk for schizophrenia: preliminary studies. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1997;21:1285–1295.