Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Neuroinflammation and cognition across psychiatric conditions

  • Célia Fourrier (a1), Gaurav Singhal (a1) and Bernhard T. Baune (a2)

Abstract

Cognitive impairments reported across psychiatric conditions (ie, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and posttraumatic stress disorder) strongly impair the quality of life of patients and the recovery of those conditions. There is therefore a great need for consideration for cognitive dysfunction in the management of psychiatric disorders. The redundant pattern of cognitive impairments across such conditions suggests possible shared mechanisms potentially leading to their development. Here, we review for the first time the possible role of inflammation in cognitive dysfunctions across psychiatric disorders. Raised inflammatory processes (microglia activation and elevated cytokine levels) across diagnoses could therefore disrupt neurobiological mechanisms regulating cognition, including Hebbian and homeostatic plasticity, neurogenesis, neurotrophic factor, the HPA axis, and the kynurenine pathway. This redundant association between elevated inflammation and cognitive alterations across psychiatric disorders hence suggests that a cross-disorder approach using pharmacological and nonpharmacological (ie, physical activity and nutrition) anti-inflammatory/immunomodulatory strategies should be considered in the management of cognition in psychiatry.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Neuroinflammation and cognition across psychiatric conditions
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Neuroinflammation and cognition across psychiatric conditions
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Neuroinflammation and cognition across psychiatric conditions
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Address for correspondence: Prof. Bernhard T. Baune, MD, PhD, FRANZCP, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Münster, University of Münster, Münster, Germany (Email: bernhard.baune@me.com)

Footnotes

Hide All

This study is financially supported by a generous research donation of the Fay Fuller Foundation, Adelaide. The funders had no role in preparation of the manuscript or decision to publish.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
1. Millan, MJ, Agid, Y, Brune, M, et al. Cognitive dysfunction in psychiatric disorders: characteristics, causes and the quest for improved therapy. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2012; 11(2): 141168.
2. Jenkins, LM, Bodapati, AS, Sharma, RP, Rosen, C. Working memory predicts presence of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with psychosis. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2018; 40(1): 8494.
3. Qureshi, SU, Long, ME, Bradshaw, MR, et al. Does PTSD impair cognition beyond the effect of trauma? J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2011; 23(1): 1628.
4. Baune, BT, Li, X, Beblo, T. Short- and long-term relationships between neurocognitive performance and general function in bipolar disorder. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2013; 35(7): 759774.
5. Andreou, C, Bozikas, VP. The predictive significance of neurocognitive factors for functional outcome in bipolar disorder. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2013; 26(1): 5459.
6. Tse, S, Chan, S, Ng, KL, Yatham, LN. Meta-analysis of predictors of favorable employment outcomes among individuals with bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2014; 16(3): 217229.
7. Kar, SK, Jain, M. Current understandings about cognition and the neurobiological correlates in schizophrenia. J Neurosci Rural Pract. 2016; 7(3): 412418.
8. Baune, BT, Renger, L. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to improve cognitive dysfunction and functional ability in clinical depression—a systematic review. Psychiatry Res. 2014; 219(1): 2550.
9. Rock, PL, Roiser, JP, Riedel, WJ, Blackwell, AD. Cognitive impairment in depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychol Med. 2014; 44(10): 20292040.
10. Soni, A, Singh, P, Shah, R, Bagotia, S. Impact of cognition and clinical factors on functional outcome in patients with bipolar disorder. East Asian Arch Psychiatry. 2017; 27(1): 2634.
11. Majer, M, Ising, M, Kunzel, H, et al. Impaired divided attention predicts delayed response and risk to relapse in subjects with depressive disorders. Psychol Med. 2004; 34(8): 14531463.
12. Dooley, LN, Kuhlman, KR, Robles, TF, Eisenberger, NI, Craske, MG, Bower, JE. The role of inflammation in core features of depression: insights from paradigms using exogenously-induced inflammation. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2018; 94: 219237.
13. Citri, A, Malenka, RC. Synaptic plasticity: multiple forms, functions, and mechanisms. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008; 33(1): 1841.
14. Martin, SJ, Morris, RG. New life in an old idea: the synaptic plasticity and memory hypothesis revisited. Hippocampus. 2002; 12(5): 609636.
15. Perusini, JN, Cajigas, SA, Cohensedgh, O, et al. Optogenetic stimulation of dentate gyrus engrams restores memory in Alzheimer’s disease mice. Hippocampus. 2017; 27(10): 11101122.
16. Dong, Z, Bai, Y, Wu, X, et al. Hippocampal long-term depression mediates spatial reversal learning in the Morris water maze. Neuropharmacology. 2013; 64: 6573.
17. Fernandes, D, Carvalho, AL. Mechanisms of homeostatic plasticity in the excitatory synapse. J Neurochem. 2016; 139(6): 973996.
18. Tetzlaff, C, Kolodziejski, C, Timme, M, Tsodyks, M, Worgotter, F. Synaptic scaling enables dynamically distinct short- and long-term memory formation. PLoS Comput Biol. 2013; 9(10): e1003307.
19. Bruel-Jungerman, E, Davis, S, Rampon, C, Laroche, S. Long-term potentiation enhances neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus. J Neurosci. 2006; 26(22): 58885893.
20. Nissant, A, Bardy, C, Katagiri, H, Murray, K, Lledo, PM. Adult neurogenesis promotes synaptic plasticity in the olfactory bulb. Nat Neurosci. 2009; 12(6): 728730.
21. Hollands, C, Tobin, MK, Hsu, M, et al. Depletion of adult neurogenesis exacerbates cognitive deficits in Alzheimer’s disease by compromising hippocampal inhibition. Mol Neurodegener. 2017; 12(1): 64.
22. Richetin, K, Leclerc, C, Toni, N, et al. Genetic manipulation of adult-born hippocampal neurons rescues memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. Brain. 2015; 138(Pt 2): 440455.
23. Leal, G, Bramham, CR, Duarte, CB. BDNF and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Vitam Horm. 2017; 104: 153195.
24. Carvalho, AL, Caldeira, MV, Santos, SD, Duarte, CB. Role of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor at glutamatergic synapses. Br J Pharmacol. 2008; 153(Suppl 1): S310324.
25. Scharfman, H, Goodman, J, Macleod, A, Phani, S, Antonelli, C, Croll, S. Increased neurogenesis and the ectopic granule cells after intrahippocampal BDNF infusion in adult rats. Exp Neurol. 2005; 192(2): 348356.
26. Aarse, J, Herlitze, S, Manahan-Vaughan, D. The requirement of BDNF for hippocampal synaptic plasticity is experience-dependent. Hippocampus. 2016; 26(6): 739751.
27. Kino, T. Stress, glucocorticoid hormones, and hippocampal neural progenitor cells: implications to mood disorders. Front Physiol. 2015; 6: 230.
28. Groc, L, Choquet, D, Chaouloff, F. The stress hormone corticosterone conditions AMPAR surface trafficking and synaptic potentiation. Nat Neurosci. 2008; 11(8): 868870.
29. Joëls, M, Karst, H. Corticosteroid effects on calcium signaling in limbic neurons. Cell Calcium. 2012; 51(3–4): 277283.
30. Howland, JG, Cazakoff, BN. Effects of acute stress and GluN2B-containing NMDA receptor antagonism on object and object-place recognition memory. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2010; 93(2): 261267.
31. Pocivavsek, A, Wu, HQ, Potter, MC, Elmer, GI, Pellicciari, R, Schwarcz, R. Fluctuations in endogenous kynurenic acid control hippocampal glutamate and memory. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011; 36(11): 23572367.
32. de Quervain, D, Schwabe, L, Roozendaal, B. Stress, glucocorticoids and memory: implications for treating fear-related disorders. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2017; 18(1): 719.
33. Allison, DJ, Ditor, DS. The common inflammatory etiology of depression and cognitive impairment: a therapeutic target. J Neuroinflammation. 2014; 11: 151.
34. Alexander, KS, Wu, HQ, Schwarcz, R, Bruno, JP. Acute elevations of brain kynurenic acid impair cognitive flexibility: normalization by the alpha7 positive modulator galantamine. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012; 220(3): 627637.
35. Heisler, JM, O’Connor, JC. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-dependent neurotoxic kynurenine metabolism mediates inflammation-induced deficit in recognition memory. Brain Behav Immun. 2015; 50: 115124.
36. Pocivavsek, A, Wu, HQ, Elmer, GI, Bruno, JP, Schwarcz, R. Pre- and postnatal exposure to kynurenine causes cognitive deficits in adulthood. Eur J Neurosci. 2012; 35(10): 16051612.
37. Castanon, N, Lasselin, J, Capuron, L. Neuropsychiatric comorbidity in obesity: role of inflammatory processes. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2014; 5: 74.
38. Joaquim, AF, Appenzeller, S. Neuropsychiatric manifestations in rheumatoid arthritis. Autoimmun Rev. 2015; 14(12): 11161122.
39. Saylor, D, Dickens, AM, Sacktor, N, et al. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder—pathogenesis and prospects for treatment. Nat Rev Neurol. 2016; 12(5): 309.
40. McAfoose, J, Baune, BT. Evidence for a cytokine model of cognitive function. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2009; 33(3): 355366.
41. Singhal, G, Baune, BT. Microglia: an interface between the loss of neuroplasticity and depression. Front Cell Neurosci. 2017; 11: 270.
42. Torres, L, Danver, J, Ji, K, et al. Dynamic microglial modulation of spatial learning and social behavior. Brain Behav Immun. 2016; 55: 616.
43. Baune, BT, Wiede, F, Braun, A, Golledge, J, Arolt, V, Koerner, H. Cognitive dysfunction in mice deficient for TNF- and its receptors. Am J Med Genet B. 2008; 147b(7): 10561064.
44. Camara, ML, Corrigan, F, Jaehne, EJ, et al. TNF-alpha and its receptors modulate complex behaviours and neurotrophins in transgenic mice. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2013; 38(12): 31023114.
45. Goshen, I, Kreisel, T, Ounallah-Saad, H, et al. A dual role for interleukin-1 in hippocampal-dependent memory processes. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2007; 32(8–10): 11061115.
46. Hryniewicz, A, Bialuk, I, Kamiński, KA, Winnicka, MM. Impairment of recognition memory in interleukin (IL)-6 knock-out mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007; 577(1–3): 219220.
47. Barrientos, RM, Higgins, EA, Sprunger, DB, Watkins, LR, Rudy, JW, Maier, SF. Memory for context is impaired by a post context exposure injection of interleukin-1 beta into dorsal hippocampus. Behav Brain Res. 2002; 134(1–2): 291298.
48. Fiore, M, Angelucci, F, Alleva, E, Branchi, I, Probert, L, Aloe, L. Learning performances, brain NGF distribution and NPY levels in transgenic mice expressing TNF-alpha. Behavioural Brain Research. 2000; 112(1-2): 165175.
49. Maggi, L, Scianni, M, Branchi, I, D’Andrea, I, Lauro, C, Limatola, C. CX(3)CR1 deficiency alters hippocampal-dependent plasticity phenomena blunting the effects of enriched environment. Front Cell Neurosci. 2011; 5: 22.
50. Rogers, JT, Morganti, JM, Bachstetter, AD, et al. CX3CR1 deficiency leads to impairment of hippocampal cognitive function and synaptic plasticity. J Neurosci. 2011; 31(45): 1624116250.
51. Eyo, UB, Peng, J, Swiatkowski, P, Mukherjee, A, Bispo, A, Wu, LJ. Neuronal hyperactivity recruits microglial processes via neuronal NMDA receptors and microglial P2Y12 receptors after status epilepticus. J Neurosci. 2014; 34(32): 1052810540.
52. Pickering, M, O’Connor, JJ. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and their effects in the dentate gyrus. Prog Brain Res. 2007; 163: 339354.
53. Avital, A, Goshen, I, Kamsler, A, et al. Impaired interleukin-1 signaling is associated with deficits in hippocampal memory processes and neural plasticity. Hippocampus. 2003; 13(7): 826834.
54. Albensi, BC, Mattson, MP. Evidence for the involvement of TNF and NF-kappaB in hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Synapse. 2000; 35(2): 151159.
55. Stellwagen, D, Beattie, EC, Seo, JY, Malenka, RC. Differential regulation of AMPA receptor and GABA receptor trafficking by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. J Neurosci. 2005; 25(12): 32193228.
56. Stellwagen, D, Malenka, RC. Synaptic scaling mediated by glial TNF-alpha. Nature. 2006; 440(7087): 10541059.
57. Beattie, EC, Stellwagen, D, Morishita, W, et al. Control of synaptic strength by glial TNFalpha. Science. 2002; 295(5563): 22822285.
58. Murray, CA, Lynch, MA. Evidence that increased hippocampal expression of the cytokine interleukin-1 beta is a common trigger for age- and stress-induced impairments in long-term potentiation. J Neurosci. 1998; 18(8): 29742981.
59. Tancredi, V, D’Antuono, M, Cafe, C, et al. The inhibitory effects of interleukin-6 on synaptic plasticity in the rat hippocampus are associated with an inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK. J Neurochem. 2000; 75(2): 634643.
60. Cumiskey, D, Butler, MP, Moynagh, PN, O’Connor, J J. Evidence for a role for the group I metabotropic glutamate receptor in the inhibitory effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha on long-term potentiation. Brain Res. 2007; 1136(1): 1319.
61. Kelly, A, Lynch, A, Vereker, E, et al. The anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-10, blocks the inhibitory effect of IL-1 beta on long term potentiation. A role for JNK. J Biol Chem. 2001; 276(49): 4556445572.
62. Lynch, AM, Walsh, C, Delaney, A, Nolan, Y, Campbell, VA, Lynch, MA. Lipopolysaccharide-induced increase in signalling in hippocampus is abrogated by IL-10--a role for IL-1 beta? J Neurochem. 2004; 88(3): 635646.
63. Almolda, B, de Labra, C, Barrera, I, et al. Alterations in microglial phenotype and hippocampal neuronal function in transgenic mice with astrocyte-targeted production of interleukin-10. Brain Behav Immun. 2015; 45: 8097.
64. Hua, JY, Smith, SJ. Neural activity and the dynamics of central nervous system development. Nat Neurosci. 2004; 7(4): 327332.
65. Delpech, JC, Madore, C, Nadjar, A, Joffre, C, Wohleb, ES, Laye, S. Microglia in neuronal plasticity: influence of stress. Neuropharmacology. 2015; 96(Pt A): 1928.
66. de Miranda, AS, Zhang, CJ, Katsumoto, A, Teixeira, AL. Hippocampal adult neurogenesis: does the immune system matter? J Neurol Sci. 2017; 372: 482495.
67. Meng, C, Zhang, JC, Shi, RL, Zhang, SH, Yuan, SY. Inhibition of interleukin-6 abolishes the promoting effects of pair housing on post-stroke neurogenesis. Neuroscience. 2015; 307: 160170.
68. Spulber, S, Oprica, M, Bartfai, T, Winblad, B, Schultzberg, M. Blunted neurogenesis and gliosis due to transgenic overexpression of human soluble IL-1ra in the mouse. Eur J Neurosci. 2008; 27(3): 549558.
69. Vallieres, L, Campbell, IL, Gage, FH, Sawchenko, PE. Reduced hippocampal neurogenesis in adult transgenic mice with chronic astrocytic production of interleukin-6. J Neurosci. 2002; 22(2): 486492.
70. Wu, MD, Hein, AM, Moravan, MJ, Shaftel, SS, Olschowka, JA, O’Banion, MK. Adult murine hippocampal neurogenesis is inhibited by sustained IL-1beta and not rescued by voluntary running. Brain Behav Immun. 2012; 26(2): 292300.
71. Chen, Z, Palmer, TD. Differential roles of TNFR1 and TNFR2 signaling in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Brain Behav Immun. 2013; 30: 4553.
72. Pereira, L, Font-Nieves, M, Van den Haute, C, Baekelandt, V, Planas, AM, Pozas, E. IL-10 regulates adult neurogenesis by modulating ERK and STAT3 activity. Front Cell Neurosci. 2015; 9: 57.
73. Calabrese, F, Rossetti, AC, Racagni, G, Gass, P, Riva, MA, Molteni, R. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor: a bridge between inflammation and neuroplasticity. Front Cell Neurosci. 2014; 8: 430.
74. Gonzalez, P, Machado, I, Vilcaes, A, et al. Molecular mechanisms involved in interleukin 1-beta (IL-1beta)-induced memory impairment. Modulation by alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH). Brain Behav Immun. 2013; 34: 141150.
75. Tong, L, Prieto, GA, Kramar, EA, et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor-dependent synaptic plasticity is suppressed by interleukin-1beta via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. J Neurosci. 2012; 32(49): 1771417724.
76. Parkhurst, CN, Yang, G, Ninan, I, et al. Microglia promote learning-dependent synapse formation through brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Cell. 2013; 155(7): 15961609.
77. Pace, TW, Hu, F, Miller, AH. Cytokine-effects on glucocorticoid receptor function: relevance to glucocorticoid resistance and the pathophysiology and treatment of major depression. Brain Behav Immun. 2007; 21(1): 919.
78. Silverman, MN, Sternberg, EM. Glucocorticoid regulation of inflammation and its functional correlates: from HPA axis to glucocorticoid receptor dysfunction. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012; 1261(1): 5563.
79. Pace, TW, Miller, AH. Cytokines and glucocorticoid receptor signaling. Relevance to major depression. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009; 1179(1): 86105.
80. Andre, C, O’Connor, JC, Kelley, KW, Lestage, J, Dantzer, R, Castanon, N. Spatio-temporal differences in the profile of murine brain expression of proinflammatory cytokines and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in response to peripheral lipopolysaccharide administration. J Neuroimmunol. 2008; 200(1–2): 9099.
81. O’Connor, JC, Andre, C, Wang, Y, et al. Interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha mediate the upregulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and the induction of depressive-like behavior in mice in response to bacillus Calmette-Guerin. J Neurosci. 2009; 29(13): 42004209.
82. Too, LK, Li, KM, Suarna, C, et al. Deletion of TDO2, IDO-1 and IDO-2 differentially affects mouse behavior and cognitive function. Behav Brain Res. 2016; 312: 102117.
83. Bobinska, K, Galecka, E, Szemraj, J, Galecki, P, Talarowska, M. Is there a link between TNF gene expression and cognitive deficits in depression? Acta Biochim Pol. 2017; 64(1): 6573.
84. Chang, HH, Lee, IH, Gean, PW, et al. Treatment response and cognitive impairment in major depression: association with C-reactive protein. Brain Behav Immun. 2012; 26(1): 9095.
85. Grassi-Oliveira, R, Bauer, ME, Pezzi, JC, Teixeira, AL, Brietzke, E. Interleukin-6 and verbal memory in recurrent major depressive disorder. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2011; 32(4): 540544.
86. Goldsmith, DR, Haroon, E, Woolwine, BJ, et al. Inflammatory markers are associated with decreased psychomotor speed in patients with major depressive disorder. Brain Behav Immun. 2016; 56: 281288.
87. Gimeno, D, Kivimaki, M, Brunner, EJ, et al. Associations of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 with cognitive symptoms of depression: 12-year follow-up of the Whitehall II study. Psychol Med. 2009; 39(3): 413423.
88. Chen, CY, Tzeng, NS, Chen, YC. Maintenance therapy of celecoxib for major depression with mimicking neuropsychological dysfunction. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2010; 32(6): e647649.
89. Peacock, BN, Scheiderer, DJ, Kellermann, GH. Biomolecular aspects of depression: a retrospective analysis. Compr Psychiatry. 2017; 73: 168180.
90. Young, KD, Drevets, WC, Dantzer, R, Teague, TK, Bodurka, J, Savitz, J. Kynurenine pathway metabolites are associated with hippocampal activity during autobiographical memory recall in patients with depression. Brain Behav Immun. 2016; 56: 335342.
91. Savitz, J, Drevets, WC, Smith, CM, et al. Putative neuroprotective and neurotoxic kynurenine pathway metabolites are associated with hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in subjects with major depressive disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015; 40(2): 463471.
92. Mahati, K, Bhagya, V, Christofer, T, Sneha, A, Shankaranarayana Rao, BS. Enriched environment ameliorates depression-induced cognitive deficits and restores abnormal hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2016; 134 Pt B: 379391.
93. Liu, M, Li, J, Dai, P, et al. Microglia activation regulates GluR1 phosphorylation in chronic unpredictable stress-induced cognitive dysfunction. Stress. 2015; 18(1): 96106.
94. Jehn, CF, Becker, B, Flath, B, et al. Neurocognitive function, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and IL-6 levels in cancer patients with depression. J Neuroimmunol. 2015; 287: 8892.
95. Sahin, TD, Karson, A, Balci, F, Yazir, Y, Bayramgurler, D, Utkan, T. TNF-alpha inhibition prevents cognitive decline and maintains hippocampal BDNF levels in the unpredictable chronic mild stress rat model of depression. Behav Brain Res. 2015; 292: 233240.
96. Bauer, IE, Pascoe, MC, Wollenhaupt-Aguiar, B, Kapczinski, F, Soares, JC. Inflammatory mediators of cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder. J Psychiatr Res. 2014; 56: 1827.
97. Dickerson, F, Stallings, C, Origoni, A, Vaughan, C, Khushalani, S, Yolken, R. Elevated C-reactive protein and cognitive deficits in individuals with bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord. 2013; 150(2): 456459.
98. Hope, S, Hoseth, E, Dieset, I, et al. Inflammatory markers are associated with general cognitive abilities in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients and healthy controls. Schizophr Res. 2015; 165(2–3): 188194.
99. Doganavsargil-Baysal, O, Cinemre, B, Aksoy, UM, et al. Levels of TNF-alpha, soluble TNF receptors (sTNFR1, sTNFR2), and cognition in bipolar disorder. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2013; 28(2): 160167.
100. Hoseth, EZ, Westlye, LT, Hope, S, et al. Association between cytokine levels, verbal memory and hippocampus volume in psychotic disorders and healthy controls. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2016; 133(1): 5362.
101. Rolstad, S, Jakobsson, J, Sellgren, C, et al. CSF neuroinflammatory biomarkers in bipolar disorder are associated with cognitive impairment. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015; 25(8): 10911098.
102. Haarman, BC, Riemersma-Van der Lek, RF, de Groot, JC, et al. Neuroinflammation in bipolar disorder—a [(11)C]-(R)-PK11195 positron emission tomography study. Brain Behav Immun. 2014; 40: 219225.
103. Benedetti, F, Poletti, S, Hoogenboezem, TA, et al. Inflammatory cytokines influence measures of white matter integrity in bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord. 2016; 202: 19.
104. Czeh, B, Lucassen, PJ. What causes the hippocampal volume decrease in depression? Are neurogenesis, glial changes and apoptosis implicated? Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2007; 257(5): 250260.
105. Fries, GR, Vasconcelos-Moreno, MP, Gubert, C, et al. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction and illness progression in bipolar disorder. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014; 18(1): pyu043.
106. Watson, S, Gallagher, P, Porter, RJ, et al. A randomized trial to examine the effect of mifepristone on neuropsychological performance and mood in patients with bipolar depression. Biol Psychiatry. 2012; 72(11): 943949.
107. Platzer, M, Dalkner, N, Fellendorf, FT, et al. Tryptophan breakdown and cognition in bipolar disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2017; 81: 144150.
108. Meyer, U. Developmental neuroinflammation and schizophrenia. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2013; 42: 2034.
109. Misiak, B, Stanczykiewicz, B, Kotowicz, K, Rybakowski, JK, Samochowiec, J, Frydecka, D. Cytokines and C-reactive protein alterations with respect to cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a systematic review. Schizophr Res. 2018; 192: 1629.
110. Frydecka, D, Misiak, B, Pawlak-Adamska, E, et al. Interleukin-6: the missing element of the neurocognitive deterioration in schizophrenia? The focus on genetic underpinnings, cognitive impairment and clinical manifestation. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2015; 265(6): 449459.
111. Fillman, SG, Weickert, TW, Lenroot, RK, et al. Elevated peripheral cytokines characterize a subgroup of people with schizophrenia displaying poor verbal fluency and reduced Broca’s area volume. Mol Psychiatry. 2016; 21(8): 10901098.
112. Xiu, MH, Tian, L, Chen, S, et al. Contribution of IL-10 and its -592 A/C polymorphism to cognitive functions in first-episode drug-naive schizophrenia. Brain Behav Immun. 2016; 57: 116124.
113. Xiu, MH, Yang, GG, Tan, YL, et al. Decreased interleukin-10 serum levels in first-episode drug-naive schizophrenia: relationship to psychopathology. Schizophr Res. 2014; 156(1): 914.
114. Fischer, EK, Drago, A. A molecular pathway analysis stresses the role of inflammation and oxidative stress towards cognition in schizophrenia. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2017; 124(7): 765774.
115. Müller, N, Riedel, M, Schwarz, MJ, Engel, RR. Clinical effects of COX-2 inhibitors on cognition in schizophrenia. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2005; 255(2): 149151.
116. Levkovitz, Y, Mendlovich, S, Riwkes, S, et al. A double-blind, randomized study of minocycline for the treatment of negative and cognitive symptoms in early-phase schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010; 71(2): 138149.
117. Monji, A, Kato, T, Kanba, S. Cytokines and schizophrenia: microglia hypothesis of schizophrenia. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2009; 63(3): 257265.
118. Laskaris, LE, Di Biase, MA, Everall, I, et al. Microglial activation and progressive brain changes in schizophrenia. Br J Pharmacol. 2016; 173(4): 666680.
119. Linderholm, KR, Skogh, E, Olsson, SK, et al. Increased levels of kynurenine and kynurenic acid in the CSF of patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 2012; 38(3): 426432.
120. Müller, N. Inflammation and the glutamate system in schizophrenia: implications for therapeutic targets and drug development. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2008; 12(12): 14971507.
121. Passos, IC, Vasconcelos-Moreno, MP, Costa, LG, et al. Inflammatory markers in post-traumatic stress disorder: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression. Lancet Psychiatry. 2015; 2(11): 10021012.
122. Eraly, SA, Nievergelt, CM, Maihofer, AX, et al. Assessment of plasma C-reactive protein as a biomarker of posttraumatic stress disorder risk. JAMA Psychiatry. 2014; 71(4): 423431.
123. Miller, K, Driscoll, D, Smith, LM, Ramaswamy, S. The role of inflammation in late-life post-traumatic stress disorder. Mil Med. 2017; 182(11): e1815e1818.
124. Monsey, MS, Gerhard, DM, Boyle, LM, Briones, MA, Seligsohn, M, Schafe, GE. A diet enriched with curcumin impairs newly acquired and reactivated fear memories. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015; 40(5): 12781288.
125. O’Donovan, A, Chao, LL, Paulson, J, et al. Altered inflammatory activity associated with reduced hippocampal volume and more severe posttraumatic stress symptoms in Gulf War veterans. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2015; 51: 557566.
126. Boku, S, Nakagawa, S, Toda, H, Hishimoto, A. Neural basis of major depression: beyond monoamine hypothesis. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2018; 72(1): 312.
127. Golier, JA, Caramanica, K, Michaelides, AC, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of mifepristone in Gulf War veterans with chronic multisymptom illness. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2016; 64: 2230.
128. Müller, N, Riedel, M, Schwarz, MJ. Psychotropic effects of COX-2 inhibitors--a possible new approach for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2004; 37(6): 266269.
129. Ayorech, Z, Tracy, DK, Baumeister, D, Giaroli, G. Taking the fuel out of the fire: evidence for the use of anti-inflammatory agents in the treatment of bipolar disorders. J Affect Disord. 2015; 174: 467478.
130. Kohler, O, Benros, ME, Nordentoft, M, et al. Effect of anti-inflammatory treatment on depression, depressive symptoms, and adverse effects: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. JAMA Psychiatry. 2014; 71(12): 13811391.
131. Syed, H, Ikram, MF, Yaqinuddin, A, Ahmed, T. Cyclooxygenase I and II inhibitors distinctly enhance hippocampal- and cortex-dependent cognitive functions in mice. Mol Med Rep. 2015; 12(5): 76497656.
132. Naeem, S, Ikram, R, Khan, SS, Rao, SS. NSAIDs ameliorate cognitive and motor impairment in a model of parkinsonism induced by chlorpromazine. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2017; 30(3): 801808.
133. Vauzour, D, Martinsen, A, Laye, S. Neuroinflammatory processes in cognitive disorders: is there a role for flavonoids and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in counteracting their detrimental effects? Neurochem Int. 2015; 89: 6374.
134. Bazinet, RP, Laye, S. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and their metabolites in brain function and disease. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2014; 15(12): 771785.
135. Fourrier, C, Remus-Borel, J, Greenhalgh, AD, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid-containing choline phospholipid modulates LPS-induced neuroinflammation in vivo and in microglia in vitro. J Neuroinflammation. 2017; 14(1): 170.
136. Rey, C, Nadjar, A, Buaud, B, et al. Resolvin D1 and E1 promote resolution of inflammation in microglial cells in vitro. Brain Behav Immun. 2016; 55: 249259.
137. Bensalem, J, Servant, L, Alfos, S, et al. Dietary polyphenol supplementation prevents alterations of spatial navigation in middle-aged mice. Front Behav Neurosci. 2016; 10: 9.
138. Eyre, H, Baune, BT. Neuroimmunological effects of physical exercise in depression. Brain Behav Immun. 2012; 26(2): 251266.
139. Gleeson, M, Bishop, NC, Stensel, DJ, Lindley, MR, Mastana, SS, Nimmo, MA. The anti-inflammatory effects of exercise: mechanisms and implications for the prevention and treatment of disease. Nat Rev Immunol. 2011; 11(9): 607615.
140. Jahshan, C, Rassovsky, Y, Green, MF. Enhancing neuroplasticity to augment cognitive remediation in schizophrenia. Front Psychiatry. 2017; 8: 191.
141. Mittal, VA, Vargas, T, Osborne, KJ, et al. Exercise treatments for psychosis: a review. Curr Treat Options Psychiatry. 2017; 4(2): 152166.
142. Greer, TL, Furman, JL, Trivedi, MH. Evaluation of the benefits of exercise on cognition in major depressive disorder. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2017; 49: 1925.
143. Workman, ER, Niere, F, Raab-Graham, KF. Engaging homeostatic plasticity to treat depression. Mol Psychiatry. 2018; 23: 2635.
144. Ren, Z, Pribiag, H, Jefferson, SJ, et al. Bidirectional homeostatic regulation of a depression-related brain state by gamma-aminobutyric acidergic deficits and ketamine treatment. Biol Psychiatry. 2016; 80(6): 457468.
145. Eisch, AJ, Petrik, D. Depression and hippocampal neurogenesis: a road to remission? Science. 2012; 338(6103): 7275.
146. Fischer, S, Strawbridge, R, Vives, AH, Cleare, AJ. Cortisol as a predictor of psychological therapy response in depressive disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry. 2017; 210(2): 105109.
147. Zorn, JV, Schur, RR, Boks, MP, Kahn, RS, Joels, M, Vinkers, CH. Cortisol stress reactivity across psychiatric disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2017; 77: 2536.
148. Ribolsi, M, Lisi, G, Ponzo, V, et al. Left hemispheric breakdown of LTP-like cortico-cortical plasticity in schizophrenic patients. Clin Neurophysiol. 2017; 128(10): 20372042.
149. Strube, W, Bunse, T, Nitsche, MA, Palm, U, Falkai, P, Hasan, A. Differential response to anodal tDCS and PAS is indicative of impaired focal LTP-like plasticity in schizophrenia. Behav Brain Res. 2016; 311: 4653.
150. Wang, HX, Gao, WJ. Prolonged exposure to NMDAR antagonist induces cell-type specific changes of glutamatergic receptors in rat prefrontal cortex. Neuropharmacology. 2012; 62(4): 18081822.
151. Inta, D, Meyer-Lindenberg, A, Gass, P. Alterations in postnatal neurogenesis and dopamine dysregulation in schizophrenia: a hypothesis. Schizophr Bull. 2011; 37(4): 674680.
152. Kheirollahi, M, Kazemi, E, Ashouri, S. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene Val66Met polymorphism and risk of schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of case-control studies. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2016; 36(1): 110.
153. Fernandes, BS, Steiner, J, Berk, M, et al. Peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor in schizophrenia and the role of antipsychotics: meta-analysis and implications. Mol Psychiatry. 2015; 20(9): 11081119.
154. Sanz-Garcia, A, Knafo, S, Pereda-Perez, I, Esteban, JA, Venero, C, Armario, A. Administration of the TrkB receptor agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone prevents traumatic stress-induced spatial memory deficits and changes in synaptic plasticity. Hippocampus. 2016; 26(9): 11791188.
155. Li, X, Han, F, Liu, D, Shi, Y. Changes of Bax, Bcl-2 and apoptosis in hippocampus in the rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder. Neurol Res. 2010; 32(6): 579586.
156. Burgdorf, J, Kroes, RA, Zhang, XL, et al. Rapastinel (GLYX-13) has therapeutic potential for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: characterization of a NMDA receptor-mediated metaplasticity process in the medial prefrontal cortex of rats. Behav Brain Res. 2015; 294: 177185.
157. Andrews, JA, Neises, KD. Cells, biomarkers, and post-traumatic stress disorder: evidence for peripheral involvement in a central disease. J Neurochem. 2012; 120(1): 2636.
158. Kheirbek, MA, Klemenhagen, KC, Sahay, A, Hen, R. Neurogenesis and generalization: a new approach to stratify and treat anxiety disorders. Nat Neurosci. 2012; 15(12): 16131620.
159. Gao, J, Chen, C, Liu, Y, et al. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide improves traumatic cognition via reversing imbalance of apoptosis/regeneration in hippocampal neurons after stress. Life Sci. 2015; 121: 124134.
160. Martinotti, G, Sepede, G, Brunetti, M, et al. BDNF concentration and impulsiveness level in post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2015; 229(3): 814818.
161. Stratta, P, Sanita, P, Bonanni, RL, et al. Clinical correlates of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor in post-traumatic stress disorder spectrum after a natural disaster. Psychiatry Res. 2016; 244: 165170.
162. Angelucci, F, Ricci, V, Gelfo, F, et al. BDNF serum levels in subjects developing or not post-traumatic stress disorder after trauma exposure. Brain Cogn. 2014; 84(1): 118122.
163. Morris, MC, Compas, BE, Garber, J. Relations among posttraumatic stress disorder, comorbid major depression, and HPA function: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Rev. 2012; 32(4): 301315.
164. Klaassens, ER, Giltay, EJ, Cuijpers, P, van Veen, T, Zitman, FG. Adulthood trauma and HPA-axis functioning in healthy subjects and PTSD patients: a meta-analysis. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2012; 37(3): 317331.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

CNS Spectrums
  • ISSN: 1092-8529
  • EISSN: 2165-6509
  • URL: /core/journals/cns-spectrums
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed