1.Cloninger, CR. A systematic method for clinical description and classification of personality variants. A proposal. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1987;44:573–588.
2.Cloninger, CR, Svrakic, DM, Przybeck, TR. A psychobiological model of temperament and character. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1993;50:975–990.
3.Cloninger, CR, Bayon, C, Svrakic, DM. Measurement of temperament and character in mood disorders: a model of fundamental states as personality types. J Affect Disord. 1998;51:21–32.
4.Tancer, ME, Ranc, J, Golden, RN. Pharmacological challenge test of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire in patients with social phobia and normal volunteers. Anxiety. 1994–1995;1:224–226.
5.Waller, DA, Gullion, CM, Petty, F, Hardy, BW, Murdock, MV, Rush, AJ. Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire and serotonin in bulimia nervosa. Psychiatry Res. 1993;48:9–15.
6.Wiesbeck, GA, Mauerer, C, Thome, J, Jakob, F, Boening, J. Neuroendocrine support for a relationship between “novelty seeking” and dopaminergic function in alcohol-dependent men. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1995;20:755–761.
7.Evans, J, Platts, H, Lightman, S, Nutt, D. Impulsiveness and the prolactin response to d-fenfluramine. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2000;149:147–152.
8.Nelson, EC, Cloninger, CR, Przybeck, TR, Csernansky, JG. Platelet serotonergic markers and Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire measures in a clinical sample. Biol Psychiatry. 1996;15;40:271–278.
9.Pfohl, B, Black, D, Noyes, R Jr, Kelley, M, Blum, N. A test of the tridimensional personality theory: association with diagnosis and platelet imipramine binding in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 1990;28:41–46.
10.Hansenne, M, Ansseau, M. Harm avoidance and serotonin. Biol Psychol. 1999;51:77–81
11.Hennig, J, Toll, C, Schonlau, P, Rohrmann, S, Netter, P. Endocrine responses after d-fenfluramine and ipsapirone challenge: further support for Cloninger's tridimensional model of personality. Neuropsychobiology. 2000;41:38–47.
12.Benjamin, J, Osher, Y, Kotler, M, et al.Association between tridimensional personality questionnaire (TPQ) traits and three functional polymorphisms: dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), serotonin transporter promoter region (5-HTTLPR) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). Mol Psychiatry. 2000;5:96–100.
13.Malhotra, AK, Virkkunen, M, Rooney, W, Eggert, M, Linnoila, M, Goldman, D. The association between the dopamine D4 receptor (D4DR) 16 amino acid repeat polymorphism and novelty seeking. Mol Psychiatry. 1996;1:388–391.
14.Mulder, RT, Joyce, PR. Relationship of temperament and behaviour measures to the prolactin response to fenfluramine in depressed men. Psychiatry Res. 2002;109:221–228.
15.Ruegg, RG, Gilmore, J, Ekstrom, RD, et al.Clomipramine challenge responses covary with Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire scores in healthy subjects. Biol Psychiatry. 1997;42:1123–1129.
16.Gerra, G, Zaimovic, A, Timpano, M, Zambelli, U, Delsignore, R, Brambilla, F. Neuroendocrine correlates of temperamental traits in humans. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2000;25:479–496.
17.Limson, R, Goldman, D, Roy, A, et al.Personality and cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites in alcoholics and controls. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1991;48:437–441.
18.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder. 3rd ed rev. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1987.
19.Spitzer, RL, Endicott, J. Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS). New York, NY: New York State Psychiatric Institute, Biometrics Research; 1978.
20.Pfohl, B, Stangl, D, Zimmerman, M. Semi-structured interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorder. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa Press; 1989.
21.Coccaro, EF, Siever, LJ, Klar, HM, et al.Serotonergic studies in patients with affective and personality disorders. Correlates with suicidal and impulsive aggressive behavior. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1989;46:587–599.
22.Trestman, RL, Coccaro, EF, Mitropoulou, V, Gabriel, SM, Horvath, T, Siever, LJ. The cortisol response to clonidine in acute and remitted depressed men. Biol Psychiatry. 1993;15;34:373–379.
23.Siever, LJ, Amin, F, Coccaro, EF, et al.CSF homovanillic acid in schizotypal personality disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1993;150:149–151.
24.Amin, F, Davidson, M, Davis, KL. Homovanillic acid measurement in clinical research: a review of methodology. Schizophr Bull. 1992;18:123–148.
25.Scheinin, M, Chang, WH, Jimerson, DC, Linnoila, M. Measurement of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol in human plasma with high-performance liquid chromatography using electrochemical detection. Anal Biochem. 1983;132:165–170.
26.Cloninger, CR, Przybeck, TR, Svrakic, DM. The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire: U.S. normative data. Psychol Rep. 1991;69(3 pt 1):1047–1057.
27.Eysenck, HJ. The Biological Basis of Personality. Springfield, Ill: Charles C. Thomas; 1967.
28.Siever, LJ, Davis, KL. A psychobiological perspective on the personality disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 1991;148:1647–658.
29.Virkkunen, M, Nuutila, A, Goodwin, FK, Linnoila, M. Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolite levels in male arsonists. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1987;44:241–247.
30.Roy, A, Agren, H, Pickar, D, et al.Reduced CSF concentrations of homovanillic acid and homovanillic acid to 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ratios in depressed patients: relationship to suicidal behavior and dexamethasone nonsuppression. Am J Psychiatry. 1986;143:1539–1545.
31.New, AS, Trestman, RL, Mitropoulou, V, et al.Serotonergic function and self-injurious behavior in personality disorder patients. J Psychiatry Res. 1997;69:17–26.
32.Manuck, SB, Flory, JD, McCaffery, JM, Matthews, KA, Mann, JJ, Muldoon, MEAggression, impulsivity, and central nervous system serotonergic responsivity in a nonpatient sample. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1998;19:287–299.
33.Goldman, RG, Skodol, AE, McGrath, PJ, Oldham, JM. Relationship between the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire and DSM-III-R personality traits. Am J Psychiatry. 1994;151:274–276.
34.Svrakic, DM, Whitehead, C, Przybeck, TR, Cloninger, CR. Differential diagnosis of personality disorders by the seven-factor model of temperament and character. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1993;50:991–999.
35.Maggini, C, Ampollini, P, Marchesi, C, Gariboldi, S, Cloninger, CR. Relationships between Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire Dimensions and DSM-III-R personality traits in Italian adolescents. Compr Psychiatry. 2000;41:426–431.
36.Agren, H, Mefford, IN, Rudorfer, MV, Linnoila, M, Potter, WZ. Interacting neurotransmitter systems. A non-experimental approach to the 5HIAA-HVA correlation in human CSF. J Psychiatr Res. 1986;20:175–193.