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Lifetime bipolar disorder comorbidity and related clinical characteristics in patients with primary obsessive compulsive disorder: a report from the International College of Obsessive–Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (ICOCS)

  • Bernardo Dell’Osso (a1) (a2) (a3), Matteo Vismara (a1), Beatrice Benatti (a1), Giovanna Cirnigliaro (a1), Benedetta Grancini (a1), Naomi A. Fineberg (a4), Michael Van Ameringen (a5), Eric Hollander (a6), Dan J. Stein (a7), Josè M. Menchon (a8), Carolyn I. Rodriguez (a9), Humberto Nicolini (a10), Nuria Lanzagorta (a11), Stefano Pallanti (a12), Giacomo Grassi (a12), Christine Lochner (a13), Donatella Marazziti (a14), Georgi Hranov (a15), Oguz Karamustafalioglu (a16), Luchezar Hranov (a15) and Joseph Zohar (a17)...



Bipolar disorder (BD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are prevalent, comorbid, and disabling conditions, often characterized by early onset and chronic course. When comorbid, OCD and BD can determine a more pernicious course of illness, posing therapeutic challenges for clinicians. Available reports on prevalence and clinical characteristics of comorbidity between BD and OCD showed mixed results, likely depending on the primary diagnosis of analyzed samples.


We assessed prevalence and clinical characteristics of BD comorbidity in a large international sample of patients with primary OCD (n = 401), through the International College of Obsessive–Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (ICOCS) snapshot database, by comparing OCD subjects with vs without BD comorbidity.


Among primary OCD patients, 6.2% showed comorbidity with BD. OCD patients with vs without BD comorbidity more frequently had a previous hospitalization (p < 0.001) and current augmentation therapies (p < 0.001). They also showed greater severity of OCD (p < 0.001), as measured by the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS).


These findings from a large international sample indicate that approximately 1 out of 16 patients with primary OCD may additionally have BD comorbidity along with other specific clinical characteristics, including more frequent previous hospitalizations, more complex therapeutic regimens, and a greater severity of OCD. Prospective international studies are needed to confirm our findings.


Corresponding author

*Address correspondence to: Bernardo Dell’Osso, Department of Psychiatry, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences “Luigi Sacco”, Director Psychiatry Unit 2, ASST Sacco-Fatebenefratelli, Via G.B. Grassi, 74, Milan 20157, Italy. (Email:


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