1.Summerfelt, T, Meltzer, HY. Efficacy vs. effectiveness in psychiatric research. Psychiatric Serv. 1998;49(6):834–835.
2.Lieberman, JA, Stroup, TS, McEvoy, JP, et, al, for the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) Investigators. Effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs in patients with chronic schizophrenia. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(12):1209–1223.
3.Stroup, TS, McEvoy, JP, Swartz, MS, et al.The National Institute of Mental Health Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) project: schizophrenia trial design and protocol development. Schizophr Bull. 2003;29(1):15–31.
4.Kay, SR, Fiszbein, A, Opler, LA. The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 1987;13(2):261–276.
5.Keefe, RS, Mohs, RC, Bilder, RM, et al.Neurocognitive assessment in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) project schizophrenia trial: development, methodology, and rationale. Schizophr Bull. 2003;29(1):45–55.
6.Woodward, ND, Purdon, SE, Meltzer, HY, Zald, DH. A meta-analysis of neuropsychological change to clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone in schizophrenia. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2005;8:457–472.
7.Jaffe, AB, Levine, J. Efficacy and effectiveness of first- and second-generation antipsychotics in schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003;65(suppl 17):3–6.
8.Glick, I, Marder, SR. Long-term maintenance therapy with quetiapine versus haloperidol decanoate in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005;66(5):638–641.
9.McGrath, BM, Tempier, RP. Patients' opinions of olanzapine and risperidone following long-term treatment: results from a cross-sectional survey. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2005;38(4):147–157.
10.Moller, HJ. Novel antipsychotics in the long-term treatment of schizophrenia. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2004;5(1):9–19.
11.Schooler, N, Rabinowitz, J, Davidson, M, Emsley, R, et al.Early Psychosis Global Working Group. Risperidone and haloperidol in first-episode psychosis: a long-term randomized trial. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162(5):947–953.
12.Swartz, MS, Perkins, DO, Stroup, TS, McEvoy, JP, Nieri, JM, Haak, DC. Assessing clinical and functional outcomes in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia trial. Schizophr Bull. 2003;29(1):33–43.
13.Sachdev, P. The current status of tardive dyskinesia. Aus N Z J Psychiatry. 2000;34(3):355–369.
14.Margolese, HC, Chouinard, G, Kolivakis, TT, et al.Tardive dyskinesia in the era of typical and atypical antipsychotics. Part 2: Incidence and management strategies in patients with schizophrenia. Can J Psychiatry. 2005;50(11):703–714.
15.Stroup, TS, Lieberman, JA, McEvoy, JP, et al.Effectiveness of olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone in patients with chronic schizophrenia following discontinuation of a previous atypical antipyschotic. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163:611–622.
16.McEvoy, JP, Lieberman, JA, Stroup, TS, et al.Effectiveness of clozapine versus olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone in patients with chronic schizophrenia who did not respond to prior atypical antipsychotic teatment. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163:600–610.
17.Chakos, M, Lieberman, J, Hoffman, E, Bradford, D, Sheitman, B. Effectiveness of second-generation antipsychotics in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia: a review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158(4):518–526.
18.Moller, HJ. Are the new antipsychotics no better than the classical neuroleptics? The problematic answer from the CATIE study. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2005;255(6):371–372.
19.Ragins, M. Should the CATIE study be a wake-up call? Psychiatr Serv. 2005;56(12):1489.
20.Amador, XF, Fitzpatrick, M. Science to services: consumers need “real-world” science. Schizophr Bull. 2003;29(1):133–137.
21.Kane, J, Honigfeld, G, Singer, J, Meltzer, H. Clozapine for the treatment-resistant schizophrenic. A double-blind comparison with chlorpromazine. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1988;45(9):789–796.
22.Beasley, CM Jr, Tollefson, G, Tran, P, Satterlee, W, Sanger, T, Hamilton, S. Olanzapine versus placebo and haloperidol: acute phase results of the North American double-blind olanzapine trial. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1996;14(2):111–123.
23.Beasley, CM Jr, Hamilton, SH, Crawford, AM, et al.Olanzapine versus haloperidol: acute phase results of the international double-blind olanzapine trial. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 1997;7(2):125–137.
24.Breier, A, Berg, PH, Thakore, JH, et al.Olanzapine versus ziprasidone: results of a 28-week double-blind study in patients with schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162(10):1879–1887.
25.Claus, A, Bollen, J, de Cuyper, H, et al.Risperidone versus haloperidol in the treatment of chronic schizophrenic inpatients: A multicentre double-blind comparative study. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1992;85:295–305.
26.Chouinard, G, Jones, B, Remington, G, et al.A Canadian placebo-controlled study of fixed doses of risperidone and haloperidol in the treatment of chronic schizophrenic patients. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1993;13:25–40.
27.Duggan, L, Fenton, M, Rathbone, J, Dardennes, R, El-Dosoky, A, Indran, S. Olanzapine for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(1):CD001359.
28.Lee, MA, Thompson, PA, Meltzer, HY. Effects of clozapine on cognitive function in schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry. 1994;55(suppl b):82–87.
29.Meltzer, HY, Sumiyoshi, T, Jayathilake, K. Melperone in the treatment of neuroleptic-resistant schizophrenia. Psychiatr Res. 2001;105:201–209.
30.Jayathilake, K, Meltzer, DO, Small, J, Meltzer, HY. Comparison of clozapine and high dose olanzapine in treatment-resistant patients with schizophrenia in a double blind, randomized, 6 month clinical trial. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005;30(suppl 1):S202.
31.Sumiyoshi, T, Jayathilake, K, Meltzer, HY. A comparison of two doses of melperone, an atypical antipsychotic drug, in the treatment of schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2003;62:65–72.
32.Meltzer, HY. Treatment-resistant schizophrenia—the role of clozapine. Curr Med Res Opin. 1997;14:1–20.
33.de Leon, J, Armstrong, SC, Cozza, KL. The dosing of atypical antipsychotics. Psychosomatics. 2005;46(3):262–273.
34.Davis, JM, Chen, N. Dose response and dose equivalence of antipsychotics. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2004;24(2):192–208.
35.Coley, KC, Carter, CS, DaPos, SV, Maxwell, R, Wilson, JW, Branch, RA. Effectiveness of antipsychotic therapy in a naturalistic setting: a comparison between risperidone, perphenazine, and haloperidol. J Clin Psychiatry. 1999;60:850–856.
36.Geddes, J, Freemantle, N, Harrison, P, Bebbington, P. Atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia: systematic overview and meta-regression analysis. BMJ. 2000;321:1371–1376.
37.Malla, A, Payne, L. First-episode psychosis: psychopathology, quality of life, and functional outcome. Schizophr Bull. 2005;31:650–671.
38.American Diabetes Association, American Psychiatric Association, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, North American Association for the Study of Obesity. Consensus development conference on antipsychotic drugs and obesity and diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:596–601.
39.Meltzer, HY. The metabolic consequences of long-term treatment with olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone: are there differences? Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2005;8(2):153–156.
40.Newcomer, J. Second-generation (atypical) antipsychotics and metabolic effects: a comprehensive literature review. CNS Drugs. 2005;19(suppl 1):1–93.
41.Ader, M, Kim, SP, Catalano, KJ, et al.Metabolic dysregulation with atypical antipsychotics occurs in the absence of underlying disease: a placebo-controlled study of olanzapine and risperidone in dogs. Diabetes. 2005;54(3):862–871.
42.Freedman, R. The choice of antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(12):1286–1288.
44.Potkin, SG, Saha, AR, Kujawa, MJ, et al.Aripiprazole, an antipsychotic with a novel mechanism of action, and risperidone vs placebo in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003;60(7):681–690.
45.Tharyan, P, Adams, CE. Electroconvulsive therapy for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(2):CD000076.
46.Mauskopf, J, Muroff, M, Gibson, PJ, Grainger, DL. Estimating the costs and benefits of new drug therapies: Atypical antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 2002;28(4):619–635.
47.Revicki, DA. Cost effectiveness of the newer atypical antipsychotics: a review of the pharmacoeconomic research evidence. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2001;2(1):110–117.
48.Tunis, SL, Ascher-Svanum, H, Stensland, M, Kinon, BJ. Assessing the value of antipsychotics for treating schizophrenia: The importance of evaluating and interpreting the clinical significance of individual service costs. Pharmacoeconomics. 2004;22(1):1–8.
49.Rosenheck, RA. Cost-effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics in the CATIE schizophrenia trial. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005;(suppl 1):S32.
50.Harrington, C, Gregorian, R, Gemmen, E, et al. The Lewin Group. Access and utilization of new antidepressant and antipsychotic medications. Falls Church, Va: The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, the National Institute of Mental Health, US Dept. of Health and Human Services; 2000. Available at: http://aspe.hhs.gov/health/reports/Psychmedaccess/). Accessed: February 13, 2006.
52.Geddes, J. Generalizing evidence to inform policy and practice: the example of the second generation ‘atypical’ antipsychotics. Schizophr Bull. 2003;29:105–114.