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Healthcare Resource Utilization in Bipolar Depression Compared with Unipolar Depression: Results of a United States Population-Based Study

  • Mark A. Frye, Joseph R. Calabrese, Michael L. Reed and Robert M.A. Hirschfeld



This study examined healthcare utilization in the past year by subjects who screened positive for bipolar versus unipolar depression.


A self-administered survey was completed in 2002 by a United States population-based sample. Respondents were categorized into one of three subgroups: bipolar depressed screen positive (BP DEP+, n=394); unipolar depressed screen positive (UP DEP+, n=794); and control subjects (n=1,612).


For depressive symptoms in the past year, BP DEP+ respondents were significantly more likely than UP DEP+ respondents to report a healthcare visit to a number of diverse care providers. In analyses controlled for demographics and depression severity, the differences in psychiatric hospitalization, psychologist/counselor outpatient visit, substance abuse/social services visit, and number of emergency room visits remained significant between BP DEP+ and UP DEP+ respondents.


Subjects with self-reported bipolar depression sought care more often from a number of diverse healthcare resources than subjects with self-reported unipolar depression. These findings underscore the morbidity associated with bipolar depression.


Corresponding author

Please direct all correspondence to: Mark A. Frye MD, 300 UCLA Medical Plaza Suite 1544, Los Angeles, CA 90095; E-mail:


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Healthcare Resource Utilization in Bipolar Depression Compared with Unipolar Depression: Results of a United States Population-Based Study

  • Mark A. Frye, Joseph R. Calabrese, Michael L. Reed and Robert M.A. Hirschfeld


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