1. Weintraub, D, Stern, MB. Psychiatric complications in Parkinson disease. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005; 13(10): 844–851.
2. Ravina, B, Marder, K, Fernandez, HH, et al. Diagnostic criteria for psychosis in Parkinson’s disease: report of an NINDS, NIMH work group. Mov Disord. 2007; 22(8): 1061–1068.
3. Friedman, JH. Parkinson disease psychosis: update. Behav Neurol. 2013; 27(4): 469–477.
4. Goetz, CG, Diederich, NJ, Fénelon, G. Psychosis in Parkinson’s disease. In: Chaudhuri KR, Tolosa E, Schapira AHV, Poewe W, eds. Non-Motor Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease. 2nd ed. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 2014: 184–208.
5. Weintraub, D, Chen, P, Ignacio, RV, Mamikonyan, E, Kales, HC. Patterns and trends in antipsychotic prescribing for Parkinson disease psychosis. Arch Neurol. 2011; 68(7): 899–904.
6. Weintraub, D, Chiang, C, Kim, HM, et al. Association of antipsychotic use with mortality risk in patients with Parkinson disease. JAMA Neurol. 2016; 73(5): 535–541.
7. Stahl, SM. Parkinson’s disease psychosis as a serotonin-dopamine imbalance syndrome. CNS Spectr. 2016; 21(5): 355–359.
8. Divac, N, Prostran, M, Jakovcevski, I, Cerovac, N. Second-generation antipsychotics and extrapyramidal adverse effects. Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014: 656370.
9. Nasrallah, HA, Tandon, R. Classic Antipsychotic Medications. Arlington, VA: The American Psychiatric Association; 2017.
10. Black, KJ. Treatment of Parkinson’s disease psychosis. Med Int Rev. 2017; 27(109): 266–271.
11. Hawkins, T, Berman, BD. Pimavanserin: a novel therapeutic option for Parkinson disease psychosis. Neurol Clin Pract. 2017; 7(2): 157–162.
12. Vanover, KE, Harvey, SC, Son, T, et al. Pharmacological characterization of AC-90179 [2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(4-methyl-benzyl)-N-(1-methyl-piperidin-4-yl)-acetamide hydrochloride]: a selective serotonin 2A receptor inverse agonist. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004; 310(3): 943–951.
13. ACADIA Pharmaceuticals Inc. NUPLAZID® [package insert]. San Diego, CA; 2016.
14. Weiner, DM, Burstein, ES, Nash, N, et al. 5-Hydroxytryptamine2A receptor inverse agonists as antipsychotics. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001; 299(1): 268–276.
15. Meltzer, HY, Mills, R, Revell, S, et al. Pimavanserin, a serotonin(2A) receptor inverse agonist, for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease psychosis. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010; 35(4): 881–892.
16. Cummings, J, Isaacson, S, Mills, R, et al. Pimavanserin for patients with Parkinson’s disease psychosis: a randomised, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2014; 383(9916): 533–540.
17. Mills, R, Friedman, J, Ondo, W, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of NUPLAZID® (pimavanserin) in PD psychosis: analysis of an integrated phase 3 placebo-controlled dataset. Paper presented at: XXI World Congress on Parkinson’s Disease and Related Disorders; December 6–9, 2015; Milan, Italy.
18. Friedman, JH. A retrospective study of pimavanserin use in a movement disorders clinic. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2017; 40(4): 157–159.
19. Takeuchi, H, Kantor, N, Uchida, H, Suzuki, T, Remington, G. Immediate vs gradual discontinuation in antipsychotic switching: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Schizophr Bull. 2017; 43(4): 862–871.
20. Cerovecki, A, Musil, R, Klimke, A, et al. Withdrawal symptoms and rebound syndromes associated with switching and discontinuing atypical antipsychotics: theoretical background and practical recommendations. CNS Drugs. 2013; 27(7): 545–572.
21. Li, P, Snyder, GL, Vanover, KE. Dopamine targeting drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia: past, present and future. Curr Top Med Chem. 2016; 16(29): 3385–3403.
22. Seppi, K, Weintraub, D, Coelho, M, et al. The Movement Disorder Society evidence-based medicine review update: treatments for the non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2011; 26(Suppl 3): S42–80.
23. American Geriatrics Society Beers Criteria Update Expert Panel. American Geriatrics Society 2015 updated Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2015; 63(11): 2227–2246.
24. Miyasaki, JM, Shannon, K, Voon, V, et al. Practice parameter: evaluation and treatment of depression, psychosis, and dementia in Parkinson disease (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2006; 66(7): 996–1002.
25. Meco, G, Alessandria, A, Bonifati, V, Giustini, P. Risperidone for hallucinations in levodopa-treated Parkinson’s disease patients. Lancet. 1994; 343(8909): 1370–1371.
26. Workman, RH Jr, Orengo, CA, Bakey, AA, Molinari, VA, Kunik, ME. The use of risperidone for psychosis and agitation in demented patients with Parkinson’s disease. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1997; 9(4): 594–597.
27. Nichols, MJ, Hartlein, JM, Eicken, MG, Racette, BA, Black, KJ. A fixed-dose randomized controlled trial of olanzapine for psychosis in Parkinson disease. F1000Res. 2013; 2: 150.
28. Ondo, WG, Levy, JK, Vuong, KD, Hunter, C, Jankovic, J. Olanzapine treatment for dopaminergic-induced hallucinations. Mov Disord. 2002; 17(5): 1031–1035.
29. Fernandez, HH, Trieschmann, ME, Friedman, JH. Aripiprazole for drug-induced psychosis in Parkinson disease: preliminary experience. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2004; 27(1): 4–5.
30. Gray, NS. Ziprasidone-related neuroleptic malignant syndrome in a patient with Parkinson’s disease: a diagnostic challenge. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2004; 19(3): 205–207.
31. Schindehütte, J, Trenkwalder, C. Treatment of drug-induced psychosis in Parkinson’s disease with ziprasidone can induce severe dose-dependent off-periods and pathological laughing. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2007; 109(2): 188–191.
32. The French Clozapine Parkinson Study Group. Clozapine in drug-induced psychosis in Parkinson’s disease. Lancet. 1999; 353(9169): 2041–2042.
33. The Parkinson Study Group. Low-dose clozapine for the treatment of drug-induced psychosis in Parkinson’s disease. N Engl J Med. 1999; 340(10): 757–763.
34. Pollak, P, Tison, F, Rascol, O, et al. Clozapine in drug induced psychosis in Parkinson’s disease: a randomised, placebo controlled study with open follow up. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004; 75(5): 689–695.
35. Morgante, L, Epifanio, A, Spina, E, et al. Quetiapine and clozapine in parkinsonian patients with dopaminergic psychosis. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2004; 27(4): 153–156.
36. Alvir, JM, Lieberman, JA, Safferman, AZ, Schwimmer, JL, Schaaf, JA. Clozapine-induced agranulocytosis: incidence and risk factors in the United States. N Engl J Med. 1993; 329(3): 162–167.
37. Merims, D, Balas, M, Peretz, C, Shabtai, H, Giladi, N. Rater-blinded, prospective comparison: quetiapine versus clozapine for Parkinson’s disease psychosis. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2006; 29(6): 331–337.
38. Klein, C, Prokhorov, T, Miniovich, A, Dobronevsky, E, Rabey, JM. Long-term follow-up (24 months) of quetiapine treatment in drug-induced Parkinson disease psychosis. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2006; 29(4): 215–219.
39. Fernandez, HH, Okun, MS, Rodriguez, RL, et al. Quetiapine improves visual hallucinations in Parkinson disease but not through normalization of sleep architecture: results from a double-blind clinical-polysomnography study. Int J Neurosci. 2009; 119(12): 2196–2205.
40. Kurlan, R, Cummings, J, Raman, R, et al. Quetiapine for agitation or psychosis in patients with dementia and parkinsonism. Neurology. 2007; 68(17): 1356–1363.
41. Ondo, WG, Tintner, R, Voung, KD, Lai, D, Ringholz, G. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, unforced titration parallel trial of quetiapine for dopaminergic-induced hallucinations in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2005; 20(8): 958–963.
42. Rabey, JM, Prokhorov, T, Miniovitz, A, Dobronevsky, E, Klein, C. Effect of quetiapine in psychotic Parkinson’s disease patients: a double-blind labeled study of 3 months’ duration. Mov Disord. 2007; 22(3): 313–318.
43. Shotbolt, P, Samuel, M, Fox, C, David, AS. A randomized controlled trial of quetiapine for psychosis in Parkinson’s disease. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009; 5: 327–332.
44. Friedman, JH. Quetiapine for Parkinson’s disease psychosis: evidence-based medicine versus expert belief: a case study. Mov Disord. 2018; 33(7): 1186–1187.
45. Wilby, KJ, Johnson, EG, Johnson, HE, Ensom, MHH. Evidence-based review of pharmacotherapy used for Parkinson’s disease psychosis. Ann Pharmacother. 2017; 51(8): 682–695.
46. Hacksell, U, Burstein, ES, McFarland, K, Mills, RG, Williams, H. On the discovery and development of pimavanserin: a novel drug candidate for Parkinson’s psychosis. Neurochem Res. 2014; 39(10): 2008–2017.
47. Voss, T, Bahr, D, Cummings, J, Mills, R, Ravina, B, Williams, H. Performance of a shortened Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms for Parkinson’s disease psychosis. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2013; 19(3): 295–299.
48. Citrome, L, Norton, JC, Chi-Burris, K, Demos, G. Pimavanserin for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease psychosis: number needed to treat, number needed to harm, and likelihood to be helped or harmed. CNS Spectr. 2018; 23(3): 228–238.
50. Mills, R, Isaacson, S, Azulay, J-P, et al. Long-term effectiveness of NUPLAZID® (pimavanserin) in PD psychosis: data from 2 open-label studies. Paper presented at: XXI World Congress on Parkinson’s Disease and Related Disorders; December 6–9, 2015; Milan, Italy.
51. Correll, CU. From receptor pharmacology to improved outcomes: individualising the selection, dosing, and switching of antipsychotics. Eur Psychiatry. 2010; 25(Suppl 2): S12–21.