1.Broderick, C, Azizian, A, Kornbluh, R, Warburton, K. Prevalence of physical violence in a forensic psychiatric hospital system during 2011–2013: patient assaults, staff assaults, and repeatedly violent patients. CNS Spectr. 2015;20(3):319–330.
2.§ CA Penal Code 1026.
3.Vitacco, MJ, Balduzzi, E, Rideout, K, Banfe, S, Britton, J. Reconsidering risk assessment with insanity acquittees. Law Hum Behav. 2018;42(5):403.
4.Almeida, F, Moreira, D, Moura, H, Mota, V. Psychiatric monitoring of Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity outpatients. J Forensic Legal Med. 2016;38:58–63.
5.McDermott, BE, Edens, JF, Quanbeck, CD, Busse, D, Scott, CL. Examining the role of static and dynamic risk factors in the prediction of inpatient violence: variable-and person-focused analyses. Law Hum Behav. 2008;32(4):325–338.
6.Grevatt, M, Thomas-Peter, B, Hughes, G. Violence, mental disorder and risk assessment: can structured clinical assessments predict the short-term risk of inpatient violence?. J Forensic Psychiatry Psychol. 2004;15(2):278–292.
7.Ross, D, Hart, S, Webster, C. Aggression in Psychiatric Patients: Using the HCR-20 to Assess Risk for Violence in Hospital and in the Community. Port Coquitlam, Canada: Riverview Hospital; 1998.
8.Douglas, KS, Guy, LS, Hart, SD. Psychosis as a risk factor for violence to others: a meta-analysis. Psychol Bull. 2009;135(5):679.
9.Iozzino, L, Ferrari, C, Large, M, Nielssen, O, De Girolamo, G. Prevalence and risk factors of violence by psychiatric acute inpatients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(6):e0128536.
10.Flannery, RB, Wyshak, G, Tecce, JJ, Flannery, GJ. Characteristics of American assaultive psychiatric patients: review of published findings, 2000–2012. Psychiatric Q. 2014;85(3):319–328.
11.Schenk, AM, Fremouw, WJ. Individual characteristics related to prison violence: a critical review of the literature. Aggress Violent Behav. 2012;17(5):430–442.
12.Morgan, RD, Flora, DB, Kroner, DG, Mills, JF, Varghese, F, Steffan, JS. Treating offenders with mental illness: a research synthesis. Law Hum Behav. 2012;36(1):37.
13.Skeem, JL, Steadman, HJ, Manchak, SM. Applicability of the risk-need-responsivity model to persons with mental illness involved in the criminal justice system. Psychiatric Serv. 2015;66(9):916–922.
14.Draine, J, Salzer, MS, Culhane, DP, Hadley, TR. Role of social disadvantage in crime, joblessness, and homelessness among persons with serious mental illness. Psychiatric Serv. 2002;53(5):565–573.
15.Andrews, DAB, The Psychology of Criminal Conduct . 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing Company; 2010.
16.Dack, C, Ross, J, Papadopoulos, C, Stewart, D, Bowers, L. A review and meta‐analysis of the patient factors associated with psychiatric in‐patient aggression. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2013;127(4):255–268.
17.Walters, GD. Predicting institutional adjustment and recidivism with the psychopathy checklist factor scores: a meta-analysis. Law Hum Behav. 2003;27(5):541–558.
18.Douglas, KS, Strand, S, Belfrage, H, Fransson, G, Levander, S. Reliability and validity evaluation of the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL: SV) in Swedish correctional and forensic psychiatric samples. Assessment. 2005;12(2):145–161.
19.Loza, W. Self-Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ): a tool for assessing violent and non-violent recidivism. In: Handbook of Recidivism Risk/Needs Assessment Tools. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley; 2018:165.
20.Loza, W, Conley, M, Warren, B. Concurrent cross-validation of the Self-Appraisal Questionnaire: a tool for assessing violent and nonviolent recidivism and institutional adjustment on a sample of North Carolina offenders. Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol. 2004;48(1):85–95.
21.Mitchell, O, Caudy, MS, MacKenzie, DL. A reanalysis of the Self-Appraisal Questionnaire: psychometric properties and predictive validity. Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol. 2013;57(4):445–459.
22.Loza, W, Neo, LH, Shahinfar, A, Loza-Fanous, A. Cross-validation of the Self-Appraisal Questionnaire: a tool for assessing violent and nonviolent recidivism with female offenders. Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol. 2005;49(5):547–560.
23.Derogatis, LR, Melisaratos, N. The brief symptom inventory: an introductory report. Psychol Med. 1983;13(3):595–605.
24.Derogatis, LR. BSI brief symptom inventory. Administration, scoring, and procedures manual; 1993.
25.Mills, K. Measures of criminal attitudes and associates: user guide. Unpublished instrument and user guide; 1999.
26.Mills, K. Measures of Criminal Attitudes and Associates (MCAA) development, factor structure, reliability, and validity. Assessment. 2002;9(3):240–253.
27.LaPray, M, Ross, H. San Diego quick assessment. J Reading. 1969;12:305–307.
28.Tabachnick, BG, Fidell, LS. Using Multivariate Statistics. 6th ed. Boston, MA: Pearson; 2013.
29.Lussier, P, Verdun-Jones, S, Deslauriers-Varin, N, Nicholls, T, Brink, J. Chronic violent patients in an inpatient psychiatric hospital: Prevalence, description, and identification. Crim Justice Behav. 2010;37(1):5–29.
30.Broderick, C. Violence Report: DSH Violence 2010–2017. Sacramento, CA: Department of State Hospitals; 2019.
31.Warburton, K. The new mission of forensic mental health systems: managing violence as a medical syndrome in an environment that balances treatment and safety. CNS Spectr. 2014;19(5):368–373.
32.Morgan, RD, Fisher, WH, Duan, N, Mandracchia, JT, Murray, D. Prevalence of criminal thinking among state prison inmates with serious mental illness. Law Hum Behav. 2010;34(4):324–336.
33.Skeem, JL, Winter, E, Kennealy, PJ, Louden, JE, Tatar, I, Joseph, R. Offenders with mental illness have criminogenic needs, too: toward recidivism reduction. Law Hum Behav. 2014;38(3):212.
34.Bjørkly, S, Hartvig, P, Heggen, F-A, Brauer, H, Moger, T. Development of a brief screen for violence risk (V-RISK-10) in acute and general psychiatry: an introduction with emphasis on findings from a naturalistic test of interrater reliability. Eur Psychiatry. 2009;24(6):388–394.
35.Douglas, KS, Hart, SD, Webster, CD, Belfrage, H. HCR-20V3: Assessing Risk for Violence: User Guide. British Columbia, Canada: Simon Fraser University; 2013.
36.Webster, C, Martin, M, Brink, J, Nicholls, T, Desmarais, S. Manual for the Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START; Version 1.1). Coquitlam, Canada: British Columbia Mental Health & Addiction Services; 2009.
37.Morgan, RD, Kroner, D, Mills, JF. A Treatment Manual for Justice Involved Persons with Mental Illness: Changing Lives and Changing Outcomes: Abingdon, UK: Routledge; 2017.
38.Morgan, RD, Kroner, DG, Mills, JF, Bauer, RL, Serna, C. Treating justice involved persons with mental illness: preliminary evaluation of a comprehensive treatment program. Crim Justice Behav. 2014;41(7):902–916.
39.Gaspar, M, Brown, L, Ramler, T, et al. Therapeutic outcomes of changing lives and changing outcomes for male and female justice involved persons with mental illness. Crim Justice Behav . 2019:0093854819879743.
40.Skeem, JL, Schubert, C, Odgers, C, Mulvey, EP, Gardner, W, Lidz, C. Psychiatric symptoms and community violence among high-risk patients: a test of the relationship at the weekly level. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2006;74(5):967.