Skip to main content Accessibility help

Competence to stand trial and criminalization: an overview of the research

  • Amanda Beltrani (a1) and Patricia A. Zapf (a2)


Beginning in the 1960s, a steady decline in the number of inpatient psychiatric beds has occurred across the United States, primarily as a result of stricter civil commitment criteria and a societal movement toward deinstitutionalization. Concomitant with this decrease in psychiatric beds has been a steady increase in the number of mentally ill individuals who are arrested and processed through the criminal justice system as defendants. One consequence of this has been an explosion in the number of defendants referred for evaluations of their present mental state—adjudicative competence—and subsequently found incompetent and ordered to complete a period of competency restoration. This has resulted in forensic mental health systems that are overwhelmed by the demand for services and that are unable to meet the needs of these defendants in a timely manner. In many states, lawsuits have been brought by defendants who have had their liberties restricted as a result of lengthy confinements in jail awaiting forensic services. The stress on state-wide forensic systems has become so widespread that this has reached the level of a near-national crisis. Many states and national organizations are currently attempting to study these issues and develop creative strategies for relieving this overburdening of forensic mental health systems nationwide. The purpose of this article is to review the current state of the research on competence to stand trial and to highlight those issues that might be relevant to the issue of criminalization of individuals with mental illness in the United States.


Corresponding author

*Address correspondence to: Patricia A. Zapf, PhD, Continuing & Professional Studies, Palo Alto University, 1791 Arastradero Road, Palo Alto, CA94304, USA. (Email:


Hide All
1.Pinals, DA, Fitch, WL, Warburton, K. Forensic patients in state psychiatric hospitals: 1999–2016. August 2017. Accessed April 1, 2019.
2.Pinals, DA, Fuller, DA Beyond beds: the vital role of a full continuum of care. October 2017. Accessed April 1, 2019.
3.Steadman, HJ, Callahan, L. Reducing the Pennsylvania incompetency to stand trial restoration waitlist: more than just beds. December 2017. Accessed April 1, 2019.
4.Wik, A, Hollen, V, Fisher, WH Forensic patients in state psychiatric hospitals: 1999–2016 (ninth in a series of ten briefs addressing: what is the inpatient bed need if you have a best practice continuum of care?). August 2017. Accessed April 1, 2019.
5.Melton, GB, Petrila, J, Poythress, NG, et al.Psychological Evaluations for the Courts: A Handbook for Mental Health Professionals and Lawyers . 4th ed. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 2018.
6.Winick, BJIncompetency to stand trial: developments in the law. In: Monahan, J, Steadman, HJ, eds. Mentally Disordered Offenders. New York, NY: Plenum Press; 1983:338.
7.Murrie, DC, Zelle, H.Criminal competencies. In: Cutler, BL, Zapf, PA, eds. APA Handbook of Forensic Psychology, Vol. 1: Individual and Situational Influences in Criminal and Civil Contexts. APA Handbooks in Psychology . Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2015:115157. doi:10.1037/14461-005.
8.Morris, DR, DeYoung, NJPsycholegal abilities and restoration of competence to stand trial. Behav Sci Law. 2012;30(6):710728. doi:10.1002/bsl.2040.
9.Pirelli, G, Gottdiener, WH, Zapf, PAA meta-analytic review of competency to stand trial research. Psychol Public Policy Law. 2011;17(1):153. doi:10.1037/a0021713.
10.Hoge, SK, Bonnie, RJ, Poythress, N, Monahan, J, Eisenberg, M, Feucht-Haviar, T.The MacArthur adjudicative competence study: development and validation of a research instrument. Law Hum Behav. 1997;21(2):141179. doi:10.1023/A:1024826312495.
11.Bonnie, RJ, Grisso, T. Adjudicative competence & youthful offenders. Grisso, Thomas & Schwartz, Robert G., eds. Youth on Trial: A Developmental Perspective on Juvenile Justice; 2000:73-103. See NCJ-184852).
12.Dusky v. United States, 362 U.S. 402 (1960).
13.Mossman, D, Noffsinger, SG, Ash, P, et al.AAPL practice guideline for the forensic psychiatric evaluation of competence to stand trial. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2007;35 (4 Suppl):S3S72.
14.Wall, BW, Ash, P, Keram, E, Pinals, DA, Thompson, CHAAPL practice resource for the forensic psychiatric evaluation of competence to stand trial. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2018;46(3):373. doi:10.29158/JAAPL.003781-18.
15.Zapf, PA, Roesch, R.Evaluation of Competence to Stand Trial. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2009.
16.Pate v. Robinson, 383 U.S. 375 (1966).
17.Drope v. Missouri, 420 U.S. 162 (1975).
18.Zapf, PA, Hubbard, KL, Cooper, VG, Wheeles, MC, Ronan, KAHave the courts abdicated their responsibility for determination of competency to stand trial to clinicians? J Forensic Psychol Pract. 2004;4(1):2744. doi:10.1300/J158v04n01_02.
19.Gowensmith, WN, Frost, LE, Speelman, DW, Therson, DELookin’ for beds in all the wrong places: outpatient competency restoration as a promising approach to modern challenges. Psychol Public Policy Law. 2016;22(3):293305. doi:10.1037/law0000088.
20.Pirelli, G., Zapf, PA. (2015). A meta-analysis of the competency restoration literature. Paper presented at: 2015 Annual Meeting of the American Psychology-Law Society, San Diego, CA.
21.Zapf, PAStandardizing Protocols for Treatment to Restore Competency to Stand Trial: Interventions and Clinically Appropriate Time Periods. Olympia, WA: Washington State Institute for Public Policy; 2013.
22.Hoge, SK, Bonnie, RJ, Poythress, N, Monahan, J.Attorney-client decision-making in criminal cases: client competence and participation as perceived by their attorneys. Behav Sci Law. 1992;10(3):385394. doi:10.1002/bsl.2370100308.
23.Ryba, N, Zapf, P.The influence of psychiatric symptoms and cognitive abilities on competence-related abilities. Int J Forensic Ment Health. 2011;10(1):2940. doi:10.1080/14999013.2010.550982.
24.Roesch, R, Golding, SL Competency to stand trial; 1980.
25.Warren, JI, Fitch, WL, Dietz, PE, Rosenfeld, BDCriminal offense, psychiatric diagnosis, and psycholegal opinion: an analysis of 894 pretrial referrals. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 1991;19(1):6369.
26.Nicholson, RA, Kugler, KECompetent and incompetent criminal defendants: a quantitative review of comparative research. Psychol Bull. 1991;109(3):355370. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.109.3.355.
27.Hart, SD, Hare, RDPredicting fitness to stand trial: the relative power of demographic, criminal, and clinical variables. Forensic Rep. 1992;5(1):5365.
28.Cooper, VG, Zapf, PAPredictor variables in competency to stand trial decisions. Law Hum Behav. 2003;27(4):423436.
29.James, DV, Duffield, G, Blizard, R, Hamilton, LWFitness to plead. A prospective study of the inter-relationships between expert opinion, legal criteria and specific symptomatology. Psychol Med. 2001;31(1):139150.
30.Viljoen, JL, Zapf, PAFitness to stand trial evaluations: a comparison of referred and non-referred defendants. Int J Forensic Ment Health. 2002;1(2):127138. doi:10.1080/14999013.2002.10471168.
31.Miller, RD, Germain, EJEvaluation of competency to stand trial in defendants who do not want to be defended against the crimes charged. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 1987;15(4):371379.
32.Winick, BJReforming incompetency to stand trial and plead guilty: a restated proposal and response to Professor Bonnie. J Crim Law Criminol. 1995;85(3):571624.
33.Smith, SA, Broughton, SFCompetency to stand trial and criminal responsibility: an analysis in South Carolina. Ment Retard. 1994;32(4):281287.
34.Cooper, DK, Grisso, T.Five year research update (1991–1995): evaluations for competence to stand trial. Behav Sci Law. 1997;15(3):347364. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-0798(199722/06)15:3<347::AID-BSL270>3.0.CO;2-K.
35.Appelbaum, KLAssessment of criminal-justice-related competencies in defendants with mental retardation. J Psychiatry Law. 1994;22(3):311327.
36.Edgerton, RBThe Cloak of Competence: Stigma in the Lives of the Mentally Retarded. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press; 1967.
37.Bonnie, RJThe competence of criminal defendants: a theoretical reformulation. Behav Sci Law. 1992;10(3):291316. doi:10.1002/bsl.2370100303.
38.Smith, SA, Hudson, RLA quick screening test of competency to stand trial for defendants with mental retardation. Psychol Rep. 1995;76(1):9197.
39.Kalbeitzer, R, Benedetti, R. Assessment of competency to stand trial in individuals with mental retardation. J Forensic Psychol Pract . 2009;9(3):237248. doi:10.1080/15228930902809955.
40.Schlesinger, LBA case study involving competency to stand trial: incompetent defendant, incompetent examiner or “malingering by proxy”? Psychol Public Policy Law. 2003;9(3–4):381399. doi:10.1037/1076-8971.9.3-4.381.
41.Stoops, R, Hess, J, Scott, T, Tolan, J, Gallucci, G, Brierley-Bowers, P.Training competency to stand trial in an individual with intellectual disability and behavioral health concerns. Mental Health Aspects of Dev Disabil. 2007;10(2):4752.
42.Anderson, SD, Hewitt, J.The effect of competency restoration training on defendants with mental retardation found not competent to proceed. Law Hum Behav. 2002;26(3):343351.
43.Schouten, R.Commentary: training for competence—form or substance? J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2003;31(2):202204.
44.Everington, C, Notario-Smull, H, Horton, MLCan defendants with mental retardation successfully fake their performance on a test of competence to stand trial? Behav Sci Law. 2007;25(4):545560. doi:10.1002/bsl.735.
45.Cowden, VL, McKee, GRCompetency to stand trial in juvenile delinquency proceedings—cognitive maturity and the attorney-client relationship. Univ Louisv J Fam Law. 1995;33:629660.
46.Baerger, DR, Griffin, EF, Lyons, JS, Simmons, R.Competency to stand trial in preadjudicated and petitioned juvenile defendants. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2003;31(3):314320.
47.Kruh, IP, Sullivan, L, Ellis, M, Lexcen, F, Mcclellan, J.Juvenile competence to stand trial: a historical and empirical analysis of a juvenile forensic evaluation service. Int J Forensic Ment Health. 2006;5(2):109123.
48.Redlich, AD, Silverman, M, Steiner, H.Pre-adjudicative and adjudicative competence in juveniles and young adults. Behav Sci Law. 2003;21(3):393410.
49.Poythress, N, Lexcen, FJ, Grisso, T, Steinberg, L.The competence-related abilities of adolescent defendants in criminal court. Law Hum Behav. 2006;30(1):7592.
50.Schmidt, MG, Reppucci, ND, Woolard, JLEffectiveness of participation as a defendant: the attorney—juvenile client relationship. Behav Sci Law. 2003;21(2):175198. doi:10.1002/bsl.532.
51.Salekin, RT, Rogers, R, Ustad, KLJuvenile waiver to adult criminal courts: prototypes for dangerousness, sophistication–maturity, and amenability to treatment. Psychol Public Policy Law. 2001;7(2):381408. doi:10.1037/1076-8971.7.2.381.
52.Grisso, T.Competence of adolescents as trial defendants. Psychol Public Policy Law. 1997;3(1):332.
53.Grisso, T.What we know about youths’ capacities as trial defendants. In: Grisso, T, Schwartz, RG, eds. Youth on Trial: A Developmental Perspective on Juvenile Justice . Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press; 2000:139171.
54.Katner, DRThe mental health paradigm and the MacArthur study: emerging issues challenging the competence of juveniles in delinquency systems. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2006;32(4):503583. doi:10.1177/009885880603200402.
55.Larson, K, Grisso, T.Transfer and commitment of youth in the United States: law, policy, and forensic practice. In: APA Handbook of Psychology and Juvenile Justice. APA Handbooks in Psychology Series. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2016:445466. doi:10.1037/14643-021.
56.Viljoen, JL, Wingrove, T, Ryba, NLAdjudicative competence evaluations of juvenile and adult defendants: judges’ views regarding essential components of competence reports. Int J Forensic Ment Health. 2008;7(2):107119. doi:10.1080/14999013.2008.9914408.
57.Barnum, R. Clinical & forensic evaluation of competence to stand trial in juvenile defendants. (From Thomas Grisso & Robert G Schwartz, eds. Youth on Trial: A Developmental Perspective on Juvenile Justice); 2000:193–223. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press; See NCJ-184852.
58.Grisso, T.Forensic Evaluation of Juveniles . 2nd ed. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press/Professional Resource Exchange; 2013.
59.Grisso, T, Schwartz, RGYouth on Trial: A Developmental Perspective on Juvenile Justice; 2000.
60.Riley, SECompetency to stand trial adjudication: a comparison of female and male defendants. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 1998;26(2):223240.
61.Crocker, AG, Favreau, OE, Caulet, M.Gender and fitness to stand trial. A 5-year review of remands in Québec. Int J Law Psychiatry. 2002;25(1):6784.
62.Kois, L, Pearson, J, Chauhan, P, Goni, M, Saraydarian, L.Competency to stand trial among female inpatients. Law Hum Behav. 2013;37(4):231240. doi:10.1037/lhb0000014.
63.Frierson, RL, Shea, SJ, Shea, MECCompetence-to-stand-trial evaluations of geriatric defendants. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2002;30(2):252256.
64.Lewis, CF, Fields, C, Rainey, E.A study of geriatric forensic evaluees: who are the violent elderly? J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2006;34(3):324332.
65.Fogel, MH, Schiffman, W, Mumley, D, Tillbrook, C, Grisso, T.Ten year research update (2001–2010): evaluations for competence to stand trial (adjudicative competence). Behav Sci Law. 2013;31(2):165191. doi:10.1002/bsl.2051.
66.Frierson, RL, Shea, SJ, Shea, MECCompetence-to-stand-trial evaluations of geriatric defendants. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2002;30(2):252256.
67.LaFortune, KA, Nicholson, RAHow adequate are Oklahoma’s mental health evaluations for determining competency in criminal proceedings? The bench and the bar respond. J Psychiatry Law. 1995;23(2):231262.
68.Winick, BJIncompetency to proceed in the criminal process: past, present, and future. In: Sales, BD, Shuman, DW, eds. Law, Mental Health, and Mental Disorder. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole Publishing Co.; 1996:310340.
69.Godinez v. Moran, 509 U.S. 389 (1993).
70.Grisso, T, Cocozza, JJ, Steadman, HJ, Fisher, WH, Greer, A.The organization of pretrial forensic evaluation services: a national profile. Law Hum Behav. 1994;18:377-393. doi:10.1007/BF01499046.
71.Zapf, PA, Roesch, R, Pirelli, G.Assessing competency to stand trial. In: Weiner, IB, Otto, RK, eds. The Handbook of Forensic Psychology . 4th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.; 2014:281314.
72.Christy, A, Otto, R, Finch, J, Ringhoff, D, Kimonis, ERFactors affecting jail detention of defendants adjudicated incompetent to proceed. Behav Sci Law. 2010;28(5):707716. doi:10.1002/bsl.961.
73.Callahan, L, Dargis, M, Ihara, E, Irons, A.Foundation Work for Exploring Incompetency to Stand Trial (IST) Evaluations & Competency Restoration for People with Serious Mental Illness (SMI). Delmar, NY: Policy Research Associates; 2018.
74.Warren, JI, Chauhan, P, Kois, L, Dibble, A, Knighton, J.Factors influencing 2,260 opinions of defendants’ restorability to adjudicative competency. Psychol Public Policy Law. 2013;19(4):498508. doi:10.1037/a0034740.
75.Geller, JL, Fisher, WH, Kaye, NSEffect of evaluations of competency to stand trial on the state hospital in an era of increased community services. Hosp Community Psychiatry. 1991;42(8):818-823.
76.Aubrey, M.Characteristics of competency referral defendants and nonreferred criminal defendants. J Psychiatry Law. 1988;16(2):233245.
77.Arvanites, TMA comparison of civil patients and incompetent defendants: pre and post deinstitutionalization. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 1990;18(4):393403.
78.Steury, EH, Choinski, M, Steury, SR. Incompetency to stand trial and mental health treatment: a case study testing the subversion hypothesis. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 1996;24(3):319331.
79.Warren, JI, Rosenfeld, B, Fitch, WL, Hawk, G.Forensic mental health clinical evaluation: an analysis of interstate and intersystemic differences. Law Hum Behav. 1997;21(4):377390.
80.Gowensmith, W.N., Murrie, D.M., Packer, I.K.. Report in Response to the Trueblood v. State of Washington’s Department of Social and Health Services. Olympia, WA: Office of Attorney General, State of Washington; 2015.
81.Skeem, JL, Cohn, NB, Berge, G, Golding, SLLogic and reliability of evaluations of competence to stand trial. Law Hum Behav. 1998;22(5):519547.
82.Nicholson, RA, Norwood, S.The quality of forensic psychological assessments, reports, and testimony: acknowledging the gap between promise and practice. Law Hum Behav. 2000;24(1):944.
83.Grisso, T. Evaluating competencies: forensic assessments & instruments; 2002. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
84.Otto, RK, Poythress, NG, Nicholson, RAPsychometric properties of the MacArthur competence assessment tool—criminal adjudication. Psychol Assess. 1998;10(4):435443. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.10.4.435.
85.Rogers, R, Johansson-Love, J.Evaluating competency to stand trial with evidence-based practice. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2009;37(4):450460.
86.Viljoen, JL, Roesch, R, Zapf, PAInterrater reliability of the fitness interview test across 4 professional groups. Can J Psychiatry. 2002;47(10):945952.
87.Murrie, DC, Boccaccini, MT, Johnson, JT, Janke, C.Does interrater (dis)agreement on psychopathy checklist scores in sexually violent predator trials suggest partisan allegiance in forensic evaluations? Law Hum Behav. 2008;32(4):352362.
88.Murrie, DC, Boccaccini, MT, Zapf, PA, Warren, JI, Henderson, CEClinician variation in findings of competence to stand trial. Psychol Public Policy Law. 2008;14(3):177193. doi:10.1037/a0013578.
89.Rosenfeld, B, Ritchie, K.Competence to stand trial: clinician reliability and the role of offense severity. J Forensic Sci. 1998;43(1):151157.
90.Mossman, D.Conceptualizing and characterizing accuracy in assessments of competence to stand trial. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2008;36(3):340351.
91.Gowensmith, WN, Murrie, DC, Boccaccini, MTField reliability of competence to stand trial opinions: how often do evaluators agree, and what do judges decide when evaluators disagree? Law Hum Behav. 2012;36(2):130139. doi:10.1037/h0093958.
92.Guarnera, LA, Murrie, DCField reliability of competency and sanity opinons: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychol Assess. 2017;29(6):795818. doi:10.1037/pas0000388
93.Dror, IE, Murrie, DCA hierarchy of expert performance applied to forensic psychological assessments. Psychol Public Policy Law. 2018;24(1):1123. doi:10.1037/law0000140.
94.Neal, TMS, Brodsky, SLForensic psychologists’ perceptions of bias and potential correction strategies in forensic mental health evaluations. Psychol Public Policy Law. 2016;22(1):5876. doi:10.1037/law0000077
95.Zapf, PA, Dror, IEUnderstanding and mitigating bias in forensic evaluation: lessons from forensic science. Int J Forensic Ment Health. 2017;16(3):227238. doi:10.1080/14999013.2017.1317302.
96.Beltrani, A, Reed, AL, Zapf, PA, Otto, RKIs hindsight really 20/20? The impact of outcome information on the decision-making process. Int J Forensic Ment Health. 2018;17(3):285296. doi:10.1080/14999013.2018.1505790.
97.Zappala, M, Reed, AL, Beltrani, A, Zapf, PA, Otto, RK. Anything you can do, i can do better: bias awareness in forensic evaluators. J Forensic Psychol Res Pract. 2018;18(1):4556. doi:10.1080/24732850.2017.1413532.
98.Zapf, PA, Kukucka, J, Kassin, SM, Dror, IECognitive bias in forensic mental health assessment: evaluator beliefs about its nature and scope. Psychol Public Policy Law. 2018;24(1):110. doi:10.1037/law0000153.
99.Pronin, E, Lin, DY, Ross, L.The bias blind spot: perceptions of bias in self versus others. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2002;28(3):369381. doi:10.1177/0146167202286008.
100.Mossman, D.When forensic examiners disagree: bias, or just inaccuracy? Psychol Public Policy Law. 2013;19(1):4055. doi:10.1037/a0029242.
101.Murrie, DC, Boccaccini, MT, Guarnera, LA, Rufino, KAAre forensic experts biased by the side that retained them? Psychol Sci. 2013;24 (10):18891897. doi:10.1177/0956797613481812.
102.Murrie, DC, Boccaccini, MT, Turner, DB, Meeks, M, Woods, C, Tussey, C.Rater (dis)agreement on risk assessment measures in sexually violent predator proceedings: evidence of adversarial allegiance in forensic evaluation? Psychol Public Policy Law. 2009;15(1):1953. doi:10.1037/a0014897.
103.Zapf, PA, Roesch, R.Future directions in the restoration of competency to stand trial. Curr Dir Psychol Sci . 2011;20(1):4347. doi:10.1177/0963721410396798.
104.Ladds, B, Convit, A.Involuntary medication of patients who are incompetent to stand trial: a review of empirical studies. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 1994;22(4):519532.
105.Sell v. United States, 282 F. 3d 560 (2003).
106.Siegel, AM, Elwork, A.Treating Incompetence to Stand Trial. Law Hum Behav. 1990;14(1):5765. doi:10.1007/BF01055789.
107.Bertman, LJ, Thompson, JW, Waters, WF, Estupinan-Kane, L, Martin, JA, Russell, L.Effect of an individualized treatment protocol on restoration of competency in pretrial forensic inpatients. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2003;31(1):2735.
108.Brown, DRA didactic group program for persons found unfit to stand trial. Hosp Community Psychiatry. 1992;43(7):732733.
109.Noffsinger, SGRestoration to Competency Practice Guidelines. Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol . 2001;45(3):356. doi:10.1177/0306624X01453007.
110.Jackson v. Indiana, 406 U.S. 715 (1972).
111.Golding, SLStudies of incompetent defendants: research and social policy implications. Forensic Rep. 1992;5(1):7783.
112.Salekin, K, Olley, JG, Hedge, K.Offenders with intellectual disability: characteristics, prevalence, and issues in forensic assessment. J Ment Health Res Intellect Disabil. 2010;3(2):97116. doi:10.1080/19315861003695769.
113.Scott, CLCommentary: a road map for research in restoration of competency to stand trial. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2003;31(1):3643.
114.Cochrane, RE, Grisso, T, Frederick, RIThe relationship between criminal charges, diagnoses, and psycholegal opinions among federal pretrial defendants. Behav Sci Law. 2001;19(4):565582.
115.Colwell, LH, Gianesini, J.Demographic, criminogenic, and psychiatric factors that predict competency restoration. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2011;39(3):297306.
116.Warren, JI, Murrie, DC, Stejskal, W, et al.Opinion formation in evaluating the adjudicative competence and restorability of criminal defendants: a review of 8,000 evaluations. Behav Sci Law. 2006;24(2):113132. doi:10.1002/bsl.699.
117.Hubbard, KL, Zapf, PAThe role of demographic, criminal, and psychiatric variables in examiners’ predictions of restorability to competency to stand trial. Int J Forensic Ment Health. 2003;2(2):145155. doi:10.1080/14999013.2003.10471186.
118.Kapoor, R.Commentary: jail-based competency restoration. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2011;39(3):311315.
119.Gowensmith, WNResolution or resignation: the role of forensic mental health professionals amidst the competency services crisis. Psychol Public Policy Law. 2019;25(1):114. doi:10.1037/law0000190.


Competence to stand trial and criminalization: an overview of the research

  • Amanda Beltrani (a1) and Patricia A. Zapf (a2)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed