1.National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke rt-pa stroke study group. Tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med. 1995;333:1581–1587.
2.ECASS investigators. Intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for acute hemispheric stroke: the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASS). JAMA. 1995;274:1017–1025.
3.Second European-Australasian Acute Stroke Study Investigators. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of thrombolytic therapy with intravenous alteplace in acute ischemic stroke (ECASS II). Lancet. 1998;352:1245–1251.
4.Clark, WM, Albers, GW, Madden, KP, Hamilton, S. The rtPA (alteplase) 0- to 6-hour acute stroke trial, part A (A0276g): results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study. Thromblytic therapy in acute ischemic stroke study investigators. Stroke. 2000;31:811–816.
5.Clark, WM, Wissman, S, Albers, GW, Jhamandas, JH, Madden, KP, Hamilton, S. Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (Alteplase) for ischemic stroke 3 to 5 hours after symptom onset. The ATLANTIS Study: a randomized controlled trial. Alteplase Thrombolysis for Acute Noninterventional Therapy in ischemic Stroke. JAMA. 1999;282:2019–2026.
6.The Atlantis, ECASS, and NINDS rt-PA Study Group Investigators. Association of outcome with early stroke treatment: pooled analysis of ATLANTIS, ECASS, and NINDS rt-PA stroke trials. Lancet. 2004;363:768–774.
7.Hacke, W, Albers, G, Al-Rawi, Y, et al.The Desmoteplase in Acute Ischemic Stroke Trial (DIAS): a phase II MRI-based 9-hour window acute stroke thrombolysis trial with intravenous desmoteplase. Stroke. 2005;36:66–73.
8.Barbash, GI, Roth, A, Hod, H, et al.Randomized controlled trial of late in-hospital angiography and angioplasty versus conservative management after treatment with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator in acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 1990;66:538–545.
9.del Zoppo, GJ, Higashida, RT, Furlan, AJ, Pessin, MS, Rowley, HA, Gent, M. PROACT: a phase II randomized trial of recombinant pro-urokinase by direct arterial delivery in acute middle cerebral artery stroke. PROACT Investigators. Prolyse in Acute Cerebral Thromboembolism. Stroke. 1998;29:4–11.
10.Furlan, A, Higashida, R, Wechsler, L, et al.Intra-arterial prourokinase for acute ischemic stroke. The PROACT II study: a randomized controlled trial. Prolyse in Acute Cerebral Thromboembolism. JAMA. 1999;282:2003–2011.
11.Lewandowski, CA, Frankel, M, Tomsick, TA, et al.Combined intravenous and intraarterial r-TPA versus intra-arterial therapy of acute ischemic stroke: Emergency Management of Stroke (EMS) Bridging Trial. Stroke. 1999;30:2598–2605.
12.IMS Study Investigators. Combined intravenous and intra-arterial recanalization for acute ischemic stroke: the Interventional Management of Stroke Study. Stroke. 2004;35:904–911.
13.Megan, LC, Saver, JL, Gobin, YP, et al.Beyond tissue plasminogen activator: mechanical intervention in acute stroke. Ann Emerg Med. 2003;41:838–845.
14.Concentric Medical. Product Summary Information for the Concentric Retriever System. Mountain View, Calif: Concentric Medical; 2001:1–7.
15.Williams, DO, Borer, J, Braunwald, E, et al.Intravenous recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator in patients with acute myocardial infarction: a report from the NHLBI thrombolysis in myocardial infarction trial. Circulation. 1986;73:338–346.
16.Smith, WS, Sung, G, Starman, S, et al.Safety and efficacy of mechanical embolectomy in acute ischemic stroke: results of the MERCI trial. Stroke. 2005;36:1432–1438.
17.IMS Study Investigators. Combined intravenous and intra-arterial recanalization for acute ischemic stroke: the Interventional Management of Stroke Study. Stroke. 2004;35:904–911.
18.Smith, WS. Safety of mechanical thrombectomy and intravenous tissue plasminogen activator in acute ischemic stroke. Results of the multi Mechanical Embolus Removal in Cerebral Ischemia (MERCI) trial, part I. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2006;27:1177–1182.
19.Spengos, K, Behrens, S, Daffertshofer, M, Dempfle, CE, Hennerici, M. Acceleration of thrombolysis with ultrasound through the cranium in a flow model. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2000;26:889–895.
20.Sehgal, CM, Leveen, RF, Shlansky-Goldberg, RD. Ultrasound-assisted thrombolysis. Invest Radiol. 1993;28:939–943.
21.Francis, CW. Ultrasound-enhanced thrombolysis. Echocardiography. 2001;18:239–246.
22.Francis, CW, Blinc, A, Lee, S, Cox, C. Ultrasound accelerated transport of recombinant tissue plaminogen activator into clots. Ultrasound Med Biol. 1995;21:419–424.
23.Blinc, A, Kennedy, SD, Bryant, RG, Marder, VJ, Francis, CW. Flow through clots determines the rate and pattern of fibrinolysis. Thromb Haemost. 1994;71:230–235.
24.Trubestein, R, Engel, C, Etzel, F, et al.Thrombolysis by ultrasound. Clin Sci Mol Med Suppl. 1976;3:697s–698s.
25.Alexandrov, AV, Demchuk, AM, Felberg, RA, et al.High rate of complete recanalization and dramatic clinical recovery during tPA infusion when continuously monitored with 2-MHz transcranial doppler monitoring. Stroke. 2000;31:610–614
26.Alexandrov, AV, Molina, CA, Grotta, JC, et al.Ultrasound-enhanced systemic thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:2170–2178.
27.Demchuk, AM, Burgin, WS, Christou, I, et al.Thrombolysis in brain ischemia (TIBI) transcranial Doppler flow grades predict clinical severity, early recovery, and mortality in patients treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator. Stroke. 2001;32:89–93.
28.Demchuk, AM, Christou, I, Wein, TH, et al.Accuracy and criteria for localizing arterial occlusion with transcranial Doppler. J Neuroimaging. 2000;10:1–12.
29.Burgin, WE, Malkoff, M, Felberg, RA, et al.Transcranial doppler ultrasound criteria for recanalization after thrombolysis for middle cerebral artery stroke. Stroke. 2000;31:1128–1132.
30.Vesely, TM, William, D, Weiss, M, et al.Comparison of the angiojet rheolytic catheter to surgical thrombectomy for the treatment of thrombosed hemodialysis grafts. Peripheral AngioJet Clinical Trial. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 1999;10:1195–1205.
31.Silva, JA, Ramee, SR, Collins, TJ, et al.Rheolytic thrombectomy in the treatment of acute limb-threatening ischemia: immediate results and six-month follow-up of the multicenter AngioJet registry. Possis Peripheral AngioJet Study Angio Jet Investigators. Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn. 1998;45:386–393.
32.Mathie, AG, Bell, SD, Saibil, EA. Mechanical thromboembolectomy in acute embolic peripheral arterial occlusions with use of AngioJet Rapid Thrombectomy System. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 1999;10:583–590.
33.Bellon, RJ, Putman, CM, Budzik, RF, Pergolizzi, RS, Reinking, GF, Norbash, AM. Rheolytic thrombectomy of the occluded internal carotid artery in the setting of acute ischemic stroke. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2001;22:526–530.
34.Lutsep, HL. Mechanical thrombolysis in acute stroke. E Medicine. 2001;2:1–7.
35.Lutsep, HL, Campbell, M, Clark, WM, et al.EPAR therapy system for treatment of acute stroke: safety study results [abstract]. Stroke. 2001;32:319b.
36.Gobin, YP, Starkman, S, Duckwiler, GR, et al.MERCI 1: a phase 1 study of Mechanical Embolus Removal in Cerebral Ischemia. Stroke. 2004;35:2848–2854.
37.Nunn, CM, O'Neill, WW, Rothbaum, D, et al.Long-term outcome after primary angioplasty: report from the primary angioplasty in myocardial infarction (PAMI-I) trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999;33:640–646.
38.Keeley, EC, Boura, JA, Grines, CL. Primary angioplasty versus intravenous thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: a quantitative review of 23 randomised trials. Lancet. 2003;361:13–20.
39.Balousek, PA, Knowles, HJ, Higashida, RT, del Zoppo, GJ. New interventions in cerebrovascular disease: the role of thrombolytic therapy and balloon angioplasty. Curr Opin Cardiol. 1996;11:550–557.
40.Chung, J, Kwon, S. Endovascular treatment of isolated and severe middle cerebral artery stenosis with percutaneous balloon and stenting. Abstract presented at: Annual Meeting of the American Society of Neuroradiology. April 23-27, 2001; Boston, Mass.
41.Mori, T, Kazita, K, Mima, T, Mori, K. Balloon angioplasty for embolic total occlusion of the middle cerebral artery and ipsilateral carotid stenting in an acute stroke stage. AJNR. 1999;20:1462–1464.
42.Ringer, AJ, Qureshi, AI, Fessler, RD, Guterman, LR, Hopkins, LN. Angioplasty of intracranial occlusion resistant to thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke. Neurosurgery. 2001;48:1282–1290.
43.Levy, El, Ecker, RD, Horowitz, MB, et al.Stent-assisted intracranial recanalization for acute stroke: early results. Neurosurgery. 2006;58:458–463.