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The role of psychological distress in the relationship between lifestyle and compulsivity: An analysis of independent, bi-national samples

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  13 December 2021

Mary-Ellen E. Brierley*
Affiliation:
BrainPark, Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, School of Psychological Sciences & Monash Biomedical Imaging Facility, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
Lucy Albertella
Affiliation:
BrainPark, Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, School of Psychological Sciences & Monash Biomedical Imaging Facility, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
Kristian Rotaru
Affiliation:
BrainPark, Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, School of Psychological Sciences & Monash Biomedical Imaging Facility, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia Monash Business School, Monash University, Caulfield, Victoria, Australia
Louise Destree
Affiliation:
BrainPark, Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, School of Psychological Sciences & Monash Biomedical Imaging Facility, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
Emma M. Thompson
Affiliation:
BrainPark, Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, School of Psychological Sciences & Monash Biomedical Imaging Facility, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
Chang Liu
Affiliation:
BrainPark, Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, School of Psychological Sciences & Monash Biomedical Imaging Facility, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
Erynn Christensen
Affiliation:
BrainPark, Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, School of Psychological Sciences & Monash Biomedical Imaging Facility, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
Amelia Lowe
Affiliation:
BrainPark, Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, School of Psychological Sciences & Monash Biomedical Imaging Facility, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
Rebecca A. Segrave
Affiliation:
BrainPark, Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, School of Psychological Sciences & Monash Biomedical Imaging Facility, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
Karyn E. Richardson
Affiliation:
BrainPark, Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, School of Psychological Sciences & Monash Biomedical Imaging Facility, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
Edouard Kayayan
Affiliation:
BrainPark, Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, School of Psychological Sciences & Monash Biomedical Imaging Facility, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
Samuel R. Chamberlain
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom Southern Health NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, United Kingdom
Jon E. Grant
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neuroscience, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
Rico S. C. Lee
Affiliation:
BrainPark, Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, School of Psychological Sciences & Monash Biomedical Imaging Facility, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
Sam Hughes
Affiliation:
BrainPark, Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, School of Psychological Sciences & Monash Biomedical Imaging Facility, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
Murat Yücel
Affiliation:
BrainPark, Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, School of Psychological Sciences & Monash Biomedical Imaging Facility, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
Leonardo F. Fontenelle
Affiliation:
BrainPark, Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, School of Psychological Sciences & Monash Biomedical Imaging Facility, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia Obsessive, Compulsive, and Anxiety Spectrum Research Program, Institute of Psychiatry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil D’Or Institute for Research and Education, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
*
*Author for correspondence: Mary-Ellen E. Brierley, Email: mary-ellen.brierley@monash.edu

Abstract

Background

Poor mental health is a state of psychological distress that is influenced by lifestyle factors such as sleep, diet, and physical activity. Compulsivity is a transdiagnostic phenotype cutting across a range of mental illnesses including obsessive–compulsive disorder, substance-related and addictive disorders, and is also influenced by lifestyle. Yet, how lifestyle relates to compulsivity is presently unknown, but important to understand to gain insights into individual differences in mental health. We assessed (a) the relationships between compulsivity and diet quality, sleep quality, and physical activity, and (b) whether psychological distress statistically contributes to these relationships.

Methods

We collected harmonized data on compulsivity, psychological distress, and lifestyle from two independent samples (Australian n = 880 and US n = 829). We used mediation analyses to investigate bidirectional relationships between compulsivity and lifestyle factors, and the role of psychological distress.

Results

Higher compulsivity was significantly related to poorer diet and sleep. Psychological distress statistically mediated the relationship between poorer sleep quality and higher compulsivity, and partially statistically mediated the relationship between poorer diet and higher compulsivity.

Conclusions

Lifestyle interventions in compulsivity may target psychological distress in the first instance, followed by sleep and diet quality. As psychological distress links aspects of lifestyle and compulsivity, focusing on mitigating and managing distress may offer a useful therapeutic approach to improve physical and mental health. Future research may focus on the specific sleep and diet patterns which may alter compulsivity over time to inform lifestyle targets for prevention and treatment of functionally impairing compulsive behaviors.

Type
Original Research
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press

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Footnotes

MY and LFF are joint senior authors.

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