Skip to main content Accessibility help

New developments in human neurocognition: clinical, genetic, and brain imaging correlates of impulsivity and compulsivity

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 February 2014

Naomi A Fineberg
Hertfordshire Partnership NHS University Foundation Trust, Queen Elizabeth II Hospital, Howlands, Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire, UK School of Postgraduate Medicine, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, UK School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge University, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK
Samuel R. Chamberlain
School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge University, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK Cambridge and Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust (CPFT), Cambridge, UK
Anna E. Goudriaan
Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam Institute for Addiction Research, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Arkin Mental Health, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Dan J. Stein
Department of Psychiatry, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
Louk J. M. J. Vanderschuren
Department of Animals in Science and Society, Division of Behavioural Neuroscience, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Claire M. Gillan
Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute (BCNI), University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
Sameer Shekar
Hertfordshire Partnership NHS University Foundation Trust, Queen Elizabeth II Hospital, Howlands, Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire, UK
Philip A. P. M. Gorwood
INSERM UMR894 (Centre of Psychiatry and Neuroscience), Paris, France Sainte-Anne Hospital, CMME (University Paris Descartes), Paris, France
Valerie Voon
Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute (BCNI), University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
Sharon Morein-Zamir
Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute (BCNI), University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
Damiaan Denys
Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands The Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, An Institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Barbara J. Sahakian
School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge University, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute (BCNI), University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
F. Gerard Moeller
Departments of Psychiatry and Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, Virginia, USA
Trevor W. Robbins
Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute (BCNI), University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
Marc N. Potenza
Departments of Psychiatry, Child Study and Neurobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
E-mail address:


Impulsivity and compulsivity represent useful conceptualizations that involve dissociable cognitive functions, which are mediated by neuroanatomically and neurochemically distinct components of cortico-subcortical circuitry. The constructs were historically viewed as diametrically opposed, with impulsivity being associated with risk-seeking and compulsivity with harm-avoidance. However, they are increasingly recognized to be linked by shared neuropsychological mechanisms involving dysfunctional inhibition of thoughts and behaviors. In this article, we selectively review new developments in the investigation of the neurocognition of impulsivity and compulsivity in humans, in order to advance our understanding of the pathophysiology of impulsive, compulsive, and addictive disorders and indicate new directions for research.

Review Articles
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2014 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.


This research was funded in part by NIH grants from NIDA (R01 DA 019039, R01 DA018647, P20 DA027844) and NIAAA (RL1 AA017539), the Connecticut State Department of Mental Health and Addictions Services, the Connecticut Mental Health Center, an unrestricted research gift from the Mohegan Sun casino, and the Yale Gambling Center of Research Excellence Award grant from the National Center for Responsible Gaming. The funding agencies did not provide input or comment on the content of the manuscript, and the content of the manuscript reflects the contributions and thoughts of the authors and not necessarily reflect the views of the funding agencies. A.G. was supported by an Addiction Program grant from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO-ZonMW grant 31160003). This research was also supported by the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ECNP) Networks Initiative and the International College of Obsessive Compulsive Spectrum Disorders.

We would like to thank Mr. Sameer Shekar for editing and formatting the manuscript and coordinating its submission.


1. Chamberlain, SR, Sahakian, BJ. The neuropsychiatry of impulsivity. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2007; 20(3): 255261.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
2. Potenza, MN. To do or not to do? The complexities of addiction, motivation, self-control, and impulsivity. Am J Psychiatry. 2007; 164(1): 46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
3. Chamberlain, SR, Fineberg, NA, Blackwell, AD, Robbins, TW, Sahakian, BJ. Motor inhibition and cognitive flexibility in obsessive-compulsive disorder and trichotillomania. Am J Psychiatry. 2006; 163(7): 12821284.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
4. Hollander, E, Cohen, LJ. Impulsivity and Compulsivity. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press; 1996.Google ScholarPubMed
5. World Health Organization. International Classification of Diseases, 10th ed. (ICD-10). Geneva: World Health Organization; 1992.Google ScholarPubMed
6. Stein, DJ, Hollander, E. Obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. J Clin Psychiatry. 1995; 56(6): 265266.Google ScholarPubMed
7. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.Google ScholarPubMed
8. Everitt, BJ, Robbins, TW. Neural systems of reinforcement for drug addiction: from actions to habits to compulsion. Nat Neurosci. 2005; 8(11): 14811489.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
9. Robbins, TW, Gillan, CM, Smith, DG, de Wit, S, Ersche, KD. Neurocognitive endophenotypes of impulsivity and compulsivity: towards dimensional psychiatry. Trends Cogn Sci. 2012; 16(1): 8191.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
10. Brewer, JA, Potenza, MN. The neurobiology and genetics of impulse control disorders: relationships to drug addictions. Biochem Pharmacol. 2008; 75(1): 6375.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
11. Hollander, E, Kim, S, Khanna, S, Pallanti, S. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders: diagnostic and dimensional issues. CNS Spectr. 2007; 12(2 Suppl 3): 513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
12. Bienvenu, OJ, Samuels, JF, Wuyek, LA, etal. Is obsessive-compulsive disorder an anxiety disorder, and what, if any, are spectrum conditions? A family study perspective. Psychol Med. 2012; 42(1): 113.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
13. Chamberlain, SR, Blackwell, AD, Fineberg, NA, Robbins, TW, Sahakian, BJ. The neuropsychology of obsessive compulsive disorder: the importance of failures in cognitive and behavioural inhibition as candidate endophenotypic markers. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2005; 29(3): 399419.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
14. Kolevzon, A, Mathewson, KA, Hollander, E. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in autism: a review of efficacy and tolerability. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006; 67(3): 407414.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
15. Van Ameringen, M, Mancini, C, Patterson, B, Bennett, M, Oakman, J. A randomized placebo controlled trial of olanzapine in trichotillomania. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2006; 16(suppl 4): S452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
16. Grant, JE, Odlaug, BL, Kim, SW. N-acetylcysteine, a glutamate modulator, in the treatment of trichotillomania: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009; 66(7): 756763.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
17. Weisman, H, Qureshi, IA, Leckman, JF, Scahill, L, Bloch, MH. Systematic review: Pharmacological treatment of tic disorders—efficacy of antipsychotic and alpha-2 adrenergic agonist agents. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2012; 37(6): 11621171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
18. Brewer, JA, Worhunsky, PD, Carroll, KM, Rounsaville, BJ, Potenza, MN. Pretreatment brain activation during Stroop task is associated with outcomes in cocaine-dependent patients. Biol Psychiatry. 2008; 64(11): 9981004.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
19. Gottesman, II, Gould, TD. The endophenotype concept in psychiatry: etymology and strategic intentions. Am J Psychiatry. 2003; 160(4): 636645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
20. Chamberlain, SR, Menzies, L. Endophenotypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder: rationale, evidence and future potential. Expert Rev Neurother. 2009; 9(8): 11331146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
21. Kashyap, H, Fontenelle, LF, Miguel, EC, etal. Impulsive compulsivity’ in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a phenotypic marker of patients with poor clinical outcome. J Psychiatr Res. 2012; 46(9): 11461152.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
22. National Institute of Mental Health. Research domain criteria (RDoC). National Institute of Mental Health Web site. Accessed January 1, 2014.Google Scholar
23. Robbins, TW. Shifting and stopping: fronto-striatal substrates, neurochemical modulation and clinical implications. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2007; 362(1481): 917932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
24. van den Heuvel, OA, Veltman, DJ, Groenewegen, HJ, etal. Frontal-striatal dysfunction during planning in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005; 62(3): 301309.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
25. Page, LA, Rubia, K, Deeley, Q, etal. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of inhibitory control in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2009; 174(3): 202209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
26. Gu, BM, Park, JY, Kang, DH, etal. Neural correlates of cognitive inflexibility during task-switching in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Brain. 2008; 131(Pt 1): 155164.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
27. Chamberlain, SR, Menzies, L, Hampshire, A, etal. Orbitofrontal dysfunction in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and their unaffected relatives. Science. 2008; 321(5887): 421422.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
28. Hollander, E, Wong, CM. Obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. J Clin Psychiatry. 1995; 56(4): 36; discussion 53–55.Google ScholarPubMed
29. Goldstein, RZ, Volkow, ND. Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex in addiction: neuroimaging findings and clinical implications. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2011; 12(11): 652669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
30. Luigjes, J, Mantione, M, van den Brink, W, etal. Deep brain stimulation increases impulsivity in two patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2011; 26(6): 338340.Google ScholarPubMed
31. Fineberg, NA, Robbins, TW, Bullmore, E, etal. Probing compulsive and impulsive behaviors, from animal models to endophenotypes: a narrative review. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010; 35(3): 591604.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
32. Potenza, MN, de Wit, H. Control yourself: alcohol and impulsivity. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2010; 34(8): 13031305.Google ScholarPubMed
33. Aron, AR, Poldrack, RA. The cognitive neuroscience of response inhibition: relevance for genetic research in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2005; 57(11): 12851292.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
34. Logan, GD, Cowan, WB, Davis, KA. On the ability to inhibit simple and choice reaction time responses: a model and a method. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 1984; 10(2): 276291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
35. Rubia, K, Smith, AB, Brammer, MJ, Taylor, E. Right inferior prefrontal cortex mediates response inhibition while mesial prefrontal cortex is responsible for error detection. Neuroimage. 2003; 20(1): 351358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
36. Chamberlain, SR, Muller, U, Blackwell, AD, etal. Neurochemical modulation of response inhibition and probabilistic learning in humans. Science. 2006; 311(5762): 861863.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
37. Chamberlain, SR, Del Campo, N, Dowson, J, etal. Atomoxetine improved response inhibition in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2007; 62(9): 977984.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
38. Chamberlain, SR, Robbins, TW. Noradrenergic modulation of cognition: therapeutic implications. J Psychopharmacol. 2013; 27(8): 694718.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
39. Clarke, HF, Walker, SC, Crofts, HS, etal. Prefrontal serotonin depletion affects reversal learning but not attentional set shifting. J Neurosci. 2005; 25(2): 532538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
40. Boonstra, AM, Oosterlaan, J, Sergeant, JA, Buitelaar, JK. Executive functioning in adult ADHD: a meta-analytic review. Psychol Med. 2005; 35(8): 10971108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
41. Chamberlain, SR, Robbins, TW, Winder-Rhodes, S, etal. Translational approaches to frontostriatal dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder using a computerized neuropsychological battery. Biol Psychiatry. 2010; 69(12): 11921203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
42. Aron, AR, Dowson, JH, Sahakian, BJ, Robbins, TW. Methylphenidate improves response inhibition in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2003; 54(12): 14651468.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
43. Boonstra, AM, Kooij, JJ, Oosterlaan, J, Sergeant, JA, Buitelaar, JK. Does methylphenidate improve inhibition and other cognitive abilities in adults with childhood-onset ADHD? J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2005; 27(3): 278298.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
44. Chamberlain, SR, Hampshire, A, Muller, U, etal. Atomoxetine modulates right inferior frontal activation during inhibitory control: a pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Biol Psychiatry. 2009; 65(7): 550555.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
45. Graf, H, Abler, B, Freudenmann, R, etal. Neural correlates of error monitoring modulated by atomoxetine in healthy volunteers. Biol Psychiatry. 2011; 69(9): 890897.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
46. Cubillo, A, Smith, AB, Barrett, N, etal. Shared and drug-specific effects of atomoxetine and methylphenidate on inhibitory brain dysfunction in medication-naive ADHD boys. Cereb Cortex. 2014; 24(1): 174185.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
47. Chamberlain, SR, Blackwell, AD, Fineberg, NA, Robbins, TW, Sahakian, BJ. The neuropsychology of obsessive compulsive disorder: the importance of failures in cognitive and behavioural inhibition as candidate endophenotypic markers. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2005; 29(3): 399419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
48. Jefferies, K, Laws, K, Fineberg, NA. Cognitive and perceptual processing in body dysmorphic disorder. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2010; 20(3): s309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
49. Chamberlain, SR, Fineberg, NA, Menzies, LA, etal. Impaired cognitive flexibility and motor inhibition in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2007; 164(2): 335338.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
50. Menzies, L, Achard, S, Chamberlain, SR, etal. Neurocognitive endophenotypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Brain. 2007; 130(12): 32233236.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
51. de Wit, SJ, de Vries, FE, van der Werf, YD, etal. Presupplementary motor area hyperactivity during response inhibition: a candidate endophenotype of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2012; 169(10): 11001108.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
52. Odlaug, BL, Chamberlain, SR, Grant, JE. Motor inhibition and cognitive flexibility in pathologic skin picking. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2010; 34(1): 208211.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
53. Verbruggen, F, Adams, RC, Van't Wout, F, Stevens, T, McLaren, IP, Chambers, CD. Are the effects of response inhibition on gambling long-lasting? PLOS-one. 2013; 8(7): e70155. doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0070155 (in press).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
54. Lawrence, AJ, Luty, J, Bogdan, NA, Sahakian, BJ, Clark, L. Impulsivity and response inhibition in alcohol dependence and problem gambling. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009; 207(1): 163172.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
55. Grant, JE, Odlaug, BL, Chamberlain, SR. A cognitive comparison of pathological skin picking and trichotillomania. J Psychiatr Res. 2011; 45(12): 16341638.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
56. Odlaug, BL, Chamberlain, SR, Harvanko, AM, Grant, JE. Age at onset in trichotillomania: clinical variables and neurocognitive performance. Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2012; 14(4).Google ScholarPubMed
57. 9th Annual Scientific Meeting of the International Society for Research on Impulsivity. May 15, 2013; San Francisco, CA. Scholar
58. Cavedini, P, Riboldi, G, D'Annucci, A, etal. Decision-making heterogeneity in obsessive-compulsive disorder: ventromedial prefrontal cortex function predicts different treatment outcomes. Neuropsychologia. 2002; 40: 205211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
59. Nielen, MM, Veltman, DJ, de Jong, R, Mulder, G, den Boer, JA. Decision making performance in obsessive compulsive disorder. J Affect Disord. 2002; 69(1–3): 257260.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
60. Fellows, LK, Farah, MJ. Different underlying impairments in decision-making following ventromedial and dorsolateral frontal lobe damage in humans. Cereb Cortex. 2005; 15(1): 5863.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
61. Lawrence, AJ, Luty, J, Bogdan, NA, Sahakian, BJ, Clark, L. Problem gamblers share deficits in impulsive decision-making with alcohol-dependent individuals. Addiction. 2009; 104(6): 10061015.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
62. Rogers, RD, Everitt, BJ, Baldacchino, A, etal. Dissociable deficits in the decision-making cognition of chronic amphetamine abusers, opiate abusers, patients with focal damage to prefrontal cortex, and tryptophan-depleted normal volunteers: evidence for monoaminergic mechanisms. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1999; 20(4): 322339.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
63. Zeeb, FD, Robbins, TW, Winstanley, CA. Serotonergic and dopaminergic modulation of gambling behavior as assessed using a novel rat gambling task. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009; 34(10): 23292343.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
64. Baarendse, PJJ, Winstanley, CA, Vanderschuren, LJMJ. Simultaneous blockade of dopamine and noradrenaline reuptake promotes disadvantageous decision making in a rat gambling task. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013; 225(3): 719731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
65. Sachdev, PS, Malhi, GS. Obsessive-compulsive behaviour: a disorder of decision-making. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2005; 39(9): 757763.Google ScholarPubMed
66. Chamberlain, SR, Fineberg, NA, Blackwell, AD, etal. A neuropsychological comparison of obsessive-compulsive disorder and trichotillomania. Neuropsychologia. 2007; 45(4): 654662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
67. DeVito, EE, Blackwell, AD, Kent, L, etal. The effects of methylphenidate on decision making in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2008; 64(7): 636639.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
68. Odlaug, BL, Chamberlain, SR, Kim, SW, Schreiber, LR, Grant, JE. A neurocognitive comparison of cognitive flexibility and response inhibition in gamblers with varying degrees of clinical severity. Psychol Med. 2011; 41(10): 21112119.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
69. Passetti, F, Clark, L, Davis, P, etal. Risky decision-making predicts short-term outcome of community but not residential treatment for opiate addiction: implications for case management. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011; 118(1): 1218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
70. Evenden, JL, Ryan, CN. The pharmacology of impulsive behaviour in rats VI: the effects of ethanol and selective serotonergic drugs on response choice with varying delays of reinforcement. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1999; 146(4): 413421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
71. Cardinal, RN. Neural systems implicated in delayed and probabilistic reinforcement. Neural Netw. 2006; 19(8): 12771301.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
72. Winstanley, CA, Theobald, DE, Dalley, JW, Cardinal, RN, Robbins, TW. Double dissociation between serotonergic and dopaminergic modulation of medial prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex during a test of impulsive choice. Cereb Cortex. 2006; 16(1): 106114.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
73. Dalley, JW, Roiser, JP. Dopamine, serotonin and impulsivity. Neuroscience. 2012; 215: 4258.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
74. Pattij, T, Vanderschuren, LJMJ. The neuropharmacology of impulsive behavior. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2008; 29(4): 192199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
75. van Gaalen, MM, van Koten, R, Schoffelmeer, AN, Vanderschuren, LJ. Critical involvement of dopaminergic neurotransmission in impulsive decision making. Biol Psychiatry. 2006; 60(1): 6673.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
76. Baarendse, PJJ, Vanderschuren, LJMJ. Dissociable effects of monoamine reuptake inhibitors on distinct forms of impulsive behavior in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012; 219(2): 313326.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
77. Floresco, SB, Tse, MT, Ghods-Sharifi, S. Dopaminergic and glutamatergic regulation of effort- and delay-based decision making. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008; 33(8): 19661979.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
78. Wischhof, L, Hollensteiner, KJ, Koch, M. Impulsive behaviour in rats induced by intracortical DOI infusions is antagonized by co-administration of an mGlu2/3 receptor agonist. Behav Pharmacol. 2011; 22(8): 805813.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
79. Cottone, P, Iemolo, A, Narayan, AR, etal. The uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists ketamine and memantine preferentially increase the choice for a small, immediate reward in low-impulsive rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013; 226(1): 127138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
80. Wiskerke, J, Stoop, N, Schetters, D, Schoffelmeer, ANM, Pattij, T. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor activation mediates the opposing effects of amphetamine on impulsive action and impulsive choice. PLoS One. 2011; 6(10): e25856.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
81. Navarrete, F, Pérez-Ortiz, JM, Manzanares, J. Cannabinoid CB2 receptor-mediated regulation of impulsive-like behaviour in DBA/2 mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2012; 165(1): 260273.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
82. Winstanley, CA. The utility of rat models of impulsivity in developing pharmacotherapies for impulse control disorders. Br J Pharmacol. 2011; 164: 13011321.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
83. Peters, J, Buchel, C. The neural mechanisms of inter-temporal decision-making: understanding variability. Trends Cogn Sci. 2011; 15(5): 227239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
84. Peper, JS, Mandl, RC, Braams, BR, etal. Delay discounting and frontostriatal fiber tracts: a combined DTI and MTR study on impulsive choices in healthy young adults. Cereb Cortex. 2012; 23(7): 16951702.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
85. Rapport, MD, Tucker, SB, DuPaul, GJ, Merlo, M, Stoner, G. Hyperactivity and frustration: the influence of control over and size of rewards in delaying gratification. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 1986; 14(2): 191204.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
86. Sonuga-Barke, EJ, Taylor, E, Heptinstall, E. Hyperactivity and delay aversion—II. The effect of self versus externally imposed stimulus presentation periods on memory. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1992; 33(2): 399409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
87. Sonuga-Barke, EJ, Taylor, E, Sembi, S, Smith, J. Hyperactivity and delay aversion—I. The effect of delay on choice. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1992; 33(2): 387398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
88. Tripp, G, Alsop, B. Sensitivity to reward delay in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2001; 42(5): 691698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
89. Shields, K, Hawk, LW Jr, Reynolds, B, etal. Effects of methylphenidate on discounting of delayed rewards in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2009; 17(5): 291301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
90. Dalley, JW, Everitt, BJ, Robbins, TW. Impulsivity, compulsivity, and top-down cognitive control. Neuron. 2011; 69(4): 680694.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
91. De Wit, H. Impulsivity as a determinant and consequence of drug use: a review of underlying processes. Addict Biol. 2009; 14(1): 2231.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
92. Perry, JL, Carroll, ME. The role of impulsive behavior in drug abuse. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008; 200(1): 126.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
93. Bickel, WK, Odum, AL, Madden, GJ. Impulsivity and cigarette smoking: delay discounting in current, never, and ex-smokers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1999; 146(4): 447454.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
94. Madden, GJ, Petry, NM, Badger, GJ, Bickel, WK. Impulsive and self-control choices in opioid-dependent patients and non-drug-using control participants: drug and monetary rewards. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 1997; 5(3): 256262.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
95. Petry, NM. Delay discounting of money and alcohol in actively using alcoholics, currently abstinent alcoholics, and controls. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2001; 154(3): 243250.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
96. Petry, NM. Discounting of money, health, and freedom in substance abusers and controls. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2003; 71(2): 133141.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
97. Kagan, J. Reflection—impulsivity: the generality and dynamics of conceptual tempo. J Abnorm Psychol. 1966; 71(1): 1724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
98. Clark, L, Robbins, TW, Ersche, KD, Sahakian, BJ. Reflection impulsivity in current and former substance users. Biol Psychiatry. 2006; 60(5): 515522.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
99. Evenden, J. The pharmacology of impulsive behaviour in rats V: the effects of drugs on responding under a discrimination task using unreliable visual stimuli. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1999; 143(2): 111122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
100. Crockett, MJ, Clark, L, Smillie, LD, Robbins, TW. The effects of acute tryptophan depletion on costly information sampling: impulsivity or aversive processing? Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012; 219(2): 587597.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
101. Clark, L, Roiser, JP, Robbins, TW, Sahakian, BJ. Disrupted ‘reflection’ impulsivity in cannabis users but not current or former ecstasy users. J Psychopharmacol. 2009; 23(1): 1422.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
102. DeVito, EE, Blackwell, AD, Clark, L, etal. Methylphenidate improves response inhibition but not reflection-impulsivity in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009; 202(1–3): 531539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
103. Snorrason, I, Smari, J, Olafsson, RP. Motor inhibition, reflection impulsivity, and trait impulsivity in pathological skin picking. Behav Ther. 2011; 42(3): 521532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
104. Fineberg, NA, Potenza, MN, Chamberlain, SR, etal. Probing compulsive and impulsive behaviors, from animal models to endophenotypes: a narrative review. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010; 35(3): 591604.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
105. Clarke, HF, Walker, SC, Crofts, HS, etal. Prefrontal serotonin depletion affects reversal learning but not attentional set shifting. J Neurosci. 2005; 25(2): 532538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
106. Pickens, CL, Saddoris, MP, Setlow, B, etal. Different roles for orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala in a reinforcer devaluation task. J Neurosci. 2003; 23(25): 1107811084.Google Scholar
107. Pickens, CL, Saddoris, MP, Gallagher, M, Holland, PC. Orbitofrontal lesions impair use of cue-outcome associations in a devaluation task. Behav Neurosci. 2005; 119(1): 317322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
108. Ghahremani, DG, Monterosso, J, Jentsch, JD, Bilder, RM, Poldrack, RA. Neural components underlying behavioral flexibility in human reversal learning. Cereb Cortex. 2010; 20(8): 18431852.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
109. Schlund, MW, Ortu, D. Experience-dependent changes in human brain activation during contingency learning. Neuroscience. 2010; 165(1): 151158.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
110. Wrase, J, Kahnt, T, Schlagenhauf, F, etal. Different neural systems adjust motor behavior in response to reward and punishment. Neuroimage. 2007; 36: 12531262.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
111. Boulougouris, V, Dalley, JW, Robbins, TW. Effects of orbitofrontal, infralimbic and prelimbic cortical lesions on serial spatial reversal learning in the rat. Behav Brain Res. 2007; 179(2): 219228.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
112. Hornak, J, O'Doherty, J, Bramham, J, etal. Reward-related reversal learning after surgical excisions in orbito-frontal or dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in humans. J Cogn Neurosci. 2004; 16(3): 463478.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
113. Remijnse, PL, Nielen, MM, van Balkom, AJ, etal. Reduced orbitofrontal-striatal activity on a reversal learning task in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006; 63: 12251236.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
114. Figee, M, Wielaard, I, Mazaheri, A, Denys, D. Neurosurgical targets for compulsivity: what can we learn from acquired brain lesions? Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013; 37(3): 328339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
115. Monsell, S. Task switching. Trends Cogn Sci. 2003; 7(3): 134140.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
116. Ravizza, SM, Carter, CS. Shifting set about task switching: behavioral and neural evidence for distinct forms of cognitive flexibility. Neuropsychologia. 2008; 46(12): 29242935.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
117. Lawrence, AD, Sahakian, B, Robbins, TW. Cognitive functions and corticostriatal circuits: insights from Huntington's disease. Trends Cogn Sci. 1998; 2(10): 379388.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
118. Watkins, LH, Sahakian, BJ, Robertson, MM, etal. Executive function in Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychol Med. 2005; 35(4): 571582.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
119. Fineberg, NA, Sharma, P, Sivakumaran, T, Sahakian, B, Chamberlain, SR. Does obsessive compulsive personality disorder belong within the obsessive-compulsive spectrum? CNS Spectr. 2007; 12(6): 467482.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
120. Patel, DD, Laws, KR, Padhi, A, etal. The neuropsychology of the schizo-obsessive subtype of schizophrenia: a new analysis. Psychol Med. 2010; 40(6): 921933.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
121. Browning, M, Holmes, EA, Harmer, CJ. The modification of attentional bias to emotional information: a review of the techniques, mechanisms, and relevance to emotional disorders. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2010; 10(1): 820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
122. Field, M, Cox, WM. Attentional bias in addictive behaviors: a review of its development, causes, and consequences. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008; 97(1–2): 120.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
123. Morein-Zamir, S, Fineberg, NA, Robbins, TW, Sahakian, BJ. Inhibition of thoughts and actions in obsessive-compulsive disorder: extending the endophenotype? Psychol Med. 2010; 40(2): 263272.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
124. Moritz, S, Fischer, B, Hottenrott, B, etal. Words may not be enough! No increased emotional Stroop effect in obsessive–compulsive disorder. Behav Res Ther. 2008; 46: 11011104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
125. Moritz, S, Jacobsen, D, Kloss, M, etal. Examination of emotional Stroop interference in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behav Res Ther. 2004; 42: 671682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
126. Harkness, EL, Harris, LM, Jones, MK, Vaccaro, L. No evidence of attentional bias in obsessive compulsive checking on the dot probe paradigm. Behav Res Ther. 2009; 47: 437443.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
127. Kyrios, M, Iob, MA. Automatic and strategic processing in obsessive-compulsive disorder: attentional bias, cognitive avoidance or more complex phenomena? J Anxiety Disord. 1998; 12: 271292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
128. Sizino da Victoria, M, Nascimento, AL, Fontenelle, LF. Symptom-specific attentional bias to threatening stimuli in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2012; 53(6): 783788.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
129. Clerkin, EM, Teachman, BA. Perceptual and cognitive biases in individuals with body dysmorphic disorder symptoms. Cognition and Emotion. 2008; 22(7): 13271339.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
130. Young, A, Perrett, D, Calder, A, Sprengelmeyer, R, Ekman, P. Facial Expressions of Emotion—Stimuli and Tests (FEEST). Version 2.1. London: Adult Mental Health, InnouAct; 2002.Google Scholar
131. Jefferies, K, Laws, K, Fineberg, NA. Superior face recognition in body dysmorphic disorder. Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders. 2012; 1(3): 175179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
132. Simon, D, Kaufmann, C, Musch, K, Kischkel, E, Kathmann, N. Fronto-striato-limbic hyperactivation in obsessive-compulsive disorder during individually tailored symptom provocation. Psychophysiology. 2010; 47: 728738.Google ScholarPubMed
133. van den Heuvel, OA, Veltman, DJ, Groenewegen, HJ, etal. Disorder-specific neuroanatomical correlates of attentional bias in obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, and hypochondriasis. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005; 62: 922933.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
134. de Wit, S, Dickinson, A. Associative theories of goal-directed behaviour: a case for animal-human translational models. Psychol Res. 2009; 73: 463476.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
135. Dickinson, A, Balleine, B. Actions and responses: the dual psychology of behaviour. In: Spatial Representation: Problems in Philosophy and Psychology. New York, Oxford University Press, 1993: 277293.Google Scholar
136. Adams, C. Variations in the sensitivity of instrumental responding to reinforcer devaluation. Q J Exp Psychol (Colchester). 1982; 34B: 7798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
137. Adams, C, Dickinson, A. Instrumental responding following reinforcer devaluation. Q J Exp Psychol (Colchester). 1981; 33: 109121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
138. Thorndike, A. Animal Intelligence: Experimental Studies. Mcmillan, New York, USA, 1911.Google Scholar
139. Graybiel, AM, Rauch, SL. Toward a neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Neuron. 2000; 28: 343347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
140. Gillan, CM, Papmeyer, M, Morein-Zamir, S, etal. Disruption in the balance between goal-directed behavior and habit learning in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2011; 168: 718726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
141. Gillan, CM, Morein-Zamir, S, Kaser, M, etal. Counterfactual Processing of Economic Action-Outcome Alternatives in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Further Evidence of Impaired Goal-Directed Behavior. Biol Psychiatry. In press. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.01.018.Google Scholar
142. Gillan, CM, Morein-Zamir, S, Urcelay, GP, etal. Enhanced Avoidance Habits in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Biol Psychiatry. In press. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.02.002.Google ScholarPubMed
143. Balleine, BW, O'Doherty, JP. Human and rodent homologies in action control: corticostriatal determinants of goal-directed and habitual action. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010; 35: 4869.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
144. de Wit, S, Watson, P, Harsay, HA, etal. Corticostriatal connectivity underlies individual differences in the balance between habitual and goal-directed action control. J Neurosci. 2012; 32(35): 1206612075.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
145. de Wit, S, Standing, HR, Devito, EE, etal. Reliance on habits at the expense of goal-directed control following dopamine precursor depletion. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012; 219(2): 621631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
146. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, Fourth Edition; 2000.Google ScholarPubMed
147. Dalley, JW, Everitt, BJ, Robbins, TW. Impulsivity, compulsivity, and top-down cognitive control. Neuron. 2011; 69: 680694.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
148. Ersche, KD, Sahakian, BJ. The neuropsychology of amphetamine and opiate dependence: implications for treatment. Neuropsychol Rev. 2007; 17: 317336.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
149. Garavan, H, Stout, JC. Neurocognitive insights into substance abuse. Trends Cogn Sci. 2005; 9: 195201.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
150. Goldstein, RZ, Volkow, ND. Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex in addiction: neuroimaging findings and clinical implications. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2011; 12: 652669.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
151. Jentsch, JD, Taylor, JR. Impulsivity resulting from frontostriatal dysfunction in drug abuse: implications for the control of behavior by reward-related stimuli. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1999; 146(4): 373390.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
152. Rogers, RD, Robbins, TW. Investigating the neurocognitive deficits associated with chronic drug misuse. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2001; 11: 250257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
153. Verdejo-García, A, Lawrence, AJ, Clark, L. Impulsivity as a vulnerability marker for substance use disorders: review of findings from high-risk research, problem gamblers and genetic association studies. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2008; 32: 777810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
154. Belin, D, Mar, AC, Dalley, JW, Robbins, TW, Everitt, BJ. High impulsivity predicts the switch to compulsive cocaine-taking. Science. 2008; 320: 13521355.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
155. Dalley, JW, Fryer, TD, Brichard, L, etal. Nucleus accumbens D2/3 receptors predict trait impulsivity and cocaine reinforcement. Science. 2007; 315: 12671270.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
156. Diergaarde, L, Pattij, T, Poortvliet, I, etal. Impulsive choice and impulsive action predict vulnerability to distinct stages of nicotine seeking in rats. Biol Psychiatry. 2008; 63: 301308.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
157. Economidou, D, Pelloux, Y, Robbins, TW, Dalley, JW, Everitt, BJ. High impulsivity predicts relapse to cocaine-seeking after punishment-induced abstinence. Biol Psychiatry. 2009; 65: 851856.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
158. Broos, N, Diergaarde, L, Schoffelmeer, ANM, Pattij, T, De Vries, TJ. Trait impulsive choice predicts resistance to extinction and propensity to relapse to cocaine seeking: a bidirectional investigation. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012; 37: 13771386.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
159. Perry, JL, Larson, EB, German, JP, Madden, GJ, Carroll, ME. Impulsivity (delay discounting) as a predictor of acquisition of IV cocaine self-administration in female rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005; 178(2–3): 193201.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
160. Poulos, CX, Le, AD, Parker, JL. Impulsivity predicts individual susceptibility to high levels of alcohol self-administration. Behav Pharmacol. 1995; 6: 810814.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
161. McNamara, R, Dalley, JW, Robbins, TW, Everitt, BJ, Belin, D. Trait-like impulsivity does not predict escalation of heroin self-administration in the rat. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010; 212(4): 453464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
162. Schippers, MC, Binnekade, R, Schoffelmeer, ANM, Pattij, T, De Vries, TJ. Unidirectional relationship between heroin self-administration and impulsive decision-making in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012; 219(2): 443452.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
163. Dalley, JW, Laane, K, Theobald, DE, etal. Enduring deficits in sustained visual attention during withdrawal of intravenous methylenedioxymethamphetamine self-administration in rats: results from a comparative study with d-amphetamine and methamphetamine. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007; 32: 11951206.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
164. Gipson, CD, Bardo, MT. Extended access to amphetamine self-administration increases impulsive choice in a delay discounting task in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009; 207(3): 391400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
165. Mendez, IA, Simon, NW, Hart, N, etal. Self-administered cocaine causes long-lasting increases in impulsive choice in a delay discounting task. Behav Neurosci. 2010; 124: 470477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
166. Winstanley, CA, Bachtell, RK, Theobald, DEH, etal. Increased impulsivity during withdrawal from cocaine self-administration: role for ΔFosB in the orbitofrontal cortex. Cereb Cortex. 2009; 19: 435444.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
167. Yoon, JH, Higgins, ST, Heil, SH, etal. Delay discounting predicts postpartum relapse to cigarette smoking among pregnant women. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2007; 15: 176186.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
168. Ersche, KD, Jones, PS, Williams, GB, etal. Abnormal brain structure implicated in stimulant drug addiction. Science. 2012; 335: 601604.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
169. Ersche, KD, Turton, AJ, Chamberlain, SR, etal. Cognitive dysfunction and anxious-impulsive personality traits are endophenotypes for drug dependence. Am J Psychiatry. 2012; 169: 926936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
170. Ersche, KD, Turton, AJ, Pradhan, S, Bullmore, ET, Robbins, TW. Drug addiction endophenotypes: impulsive versus sensation-seeking personality traits. Biol Psychiatry. 2010; 68: 770773.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
171. Ersche, KD, Jones, PS, Williams, GB, etal. Distinctive personality traits and neural correlates associated with stimulant drug use versus familial risk of stimulant dependence. Biol Psychiatry. 2013; 74(2): 137144.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
172. Audrain-McGovern, J, Rodriguez, D, Epstein, LH, etal. Does delay discounting play an etiological role in smoking or is it a consequence of smoking? Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009; 103: 99106.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
173. Nigg, JT, Wong, MM, Martel, MM, etal. Poor response inhibition as a predictor of problem drinking and illicit drug use in adolescents at risk for alcoholism and other substance use disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006; 45: 468475.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
174. Goudriaan, AE, Grekin, ER, Sher, KJ. Decision making and response inhibition as predictors of heavy alcohol use: a prospective study. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011; 35: 10501057.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
175. Parsegian, A, Glen, WB Jr, Lavin, A, See, RE. Methamphetamine self-administration produces attentional set-shifting deficits and alters prefrontal cortical neurophysiology in rats. Biol Psychiatry. 2011; 69: 253259.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
176. Calu, DJ, Stalnaker, TA, Franz, TM, etal. Withdrawal from cocaine self-administration produces long-lasting deficits in orbitofrontal-dependent reversal learning in rats. Learn Mem. 2007; 14: 325328.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
177. Porter, JN, Olsen, AS, Gurnsey, K, etal. Chronic cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys: impact on associative learning, cognitive control, and working memory. J Neurosci. 2011; 31: 49264934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
178. Lesscher, HMB, Vanderschuren, LJMJ. Compulsive drug use and its neural substrates. Rev Neurosci. 2012; 23: 731745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
179. Vanderschuren, LJMJ, Ahmed, SH. Animals studies of addictive behavior. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2013; 3(4): a011932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
180. Deroche-Gamonet, V, Belin, D, Piazza, PV. Evidence for addiction-like behavior in the rat. Science. 2004; 305: 10141017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
181. Hopf, FW, Chang, SJ, Sparta, DR, Bowers, MS, Bonci, A. Motivation for alcohol becomes resistant to quinine adulteration after 3 to 4 months of intermittent alcohol self-administration. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2010; 34: 15651573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
182. Jonkman, S, Pelloux, Y, Everitt, BJ. Differential roles of the dorsolateral and midlateral striatum in punished cocaine seeking. J Neurosci. 2012; 32: 46454650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
183. Lesscher, HMB, Van Kerkhof, LWM, Vanderschuren, LJMJ. Inflexible and indifferent ethanol drinking in mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2010; 34: 12191225.Google Scholar
184. Pelloux, Y, Everitt, BJ, Dickinson, A. Compulsive drug seeking by rats under punishment: effects of drug taking history. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007; 194(1): 127137.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
185. Vanderschuren, LJMJ, Everitt, BJ. Drug seeking becomes compulsive after prolonged cocaine self-administration. Science. 2004; 305: 10171019.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
186. Wolffgramm, J. An ethopharmacological approach to the development of drug addiction. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 1991; 15(4): 515519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
187. Bock, R, Shin, JH, Kaplan, AR, etal. Strengthening the accumbal indirect pathway promotes resilience to compulsive cocaine use. Nat Neurosci. 2013; 16: 632638.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
188. Chen, BT, Yau, HJ, Hatch, C, etal. Rescuing cocaine-induced prefrontal cortex hypoactivity prevents compulsive cocaine seeking. Nature. 2013; 496: 359362.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
189. Kasanetz, F, Deroche-Gamonet, V, Berson, N, etal. Transition to addiction is associated with a persistent impairment in synaptic plasticity. Science. 2010; 328: 17091712.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
190. Kasanetz, F, Lafourcade, M, Deroche-Gamonet, V, etal. Prefrontal synaptic markers of cocaine addiction-like behavior in rats. Mol Psychiatry. 2013; 18(6): 729737.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
191. Pelloux, Y, Dilleen, R, Economidou, D, Theobald, D, Everitt, BJ. Reduced forebrain serotonin transmission is causally involved in the development of compulsive cocaine seeking in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012; 37(11): 25052514.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
192. Everitt, BJ, Robbins, TW. From the ventral to the dorsal striatum: devolving views of their roles in drug addiction. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013; 37(9 Pt A): 19461954.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
193. Robbins, TW, Gillan, CM, Smith, DG, de Wit, S, Ersche, KD. Neurocognitive endophenotypes of impulsivity and compulsivity: towards dimensional psychiatry. Trends Cogn Sci. 2012; 16: 8191.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
194. Meunier, D, Ersche, KD, Craig, KJ, etal. Brain functional connectivity in stimulant drug dependence and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Neuroimage. 2012; 59: 14611468.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
195. Potenza, MN. Neurobiology of gambling behaviors. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2013; 23(4): 660667.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
196. Potenza, MN. Biological contributions to addictions in adolescents and adults: prevention, treatment and policy implications. J Adolesc Health. 2013; 52: s22s32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
197. Balodis, IM, Kober, H, Worhunsky, PD, etal. Diminished fronto-striatal activity during processing of monetary rewards and losses in pathological gambling. Biol Psychiatry. 2012; 71: 749757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
198. Choi, J-S, Shin, Y-C, Jung, WH, etal. Altered brain activity during reward anticipation in pathological gambling and obsessive-compulsive disorder. PLoS One. 2012; 7(9): e45938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
199. Wrase, J, Schlagenhauf, F, Kienast, T, etal. Dysfunction of reward processing correlates with alcohol craving in detoxified alcoholics. Neuroimage. 2007; 35: 787794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
200. Beck, A, Schlagenhauf, F, Wustenberg, T, etal. Ventral striatal activation during reward anticipation correlates with impulsivity in alcoholics. Biol Psychiatry. 2009; 66: 734742.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
201. Lawrence, AJ, Luty, J, Bogdan, NA, Sahakian, BJ, Clark, L. Problem gamblers share deficits in impulsive decision-making with alcohol dependent individuals. Addiction. 2009; 104: 10061015.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
202. Gearhardt, AN, White, MA, Potenza, MN. Binge eating disorder and food addiction. Curr Drug Abuse Rev. 2011; 4(3): 201207.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
203. Balodis, IM, Kober, H, Worhunsky, PD, etal. Monetary reward processing in obese individuals with and without binge eating disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2013; 73(9): 877886.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
204. Balodis, IM, Grilo, CM, Kober, H, Worhunsky, PD, White, MA, Stevens, MC, Pearlson, GD, Potenza, MN. A pilot study linking reduced fronto-striatal recruitment during reward processing to persistent bingeing following treatment for binge-eating disorder. Int J Eat Disord. In press. DOI: 10.1002/eat.22204.Google ScholarPubMed
205. Ziauddeen, H, Farooqi, IS, Fletcher, PC. Obesity and the brain: how convincing is the addiction model? Nat Rev Neurosci. 2012; 13: 279286.Google ScholarPubMed
206. Avena, NM, Gearhardt, AN, Gold, MS, Wang, GJ, Potenza, MN. Tossing the baby out with the bathwater after a brief rinse? The potential downside of dismissing food addiction based on limited data. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2012; 13: 514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
207. Ziauddeen, H, Farooqi, IS, Fletcher, PC. Food addiction: Is there a baby in the bathwater? Nat Rev Neurosci. 2012; 13: 514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
208. Zald, DH, Boileau, I, El-Dearedy, W, etal. Dopamine transmission in the human striatum during monetary reward tasks. J Neurosci. 2004; 24(17): 41054112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
209. Frascella, J, Potenza, MN, Brown, LL, Childress, AR. Shared brain vulnerabilities open the way for nonsubstance addictions: carving addiction at a new joint? Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010; 1187: 294315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
210. Leeman, RF, Potenza, MN. A targetted review of the neurobiology and genetics of behavioural addictions; an emerging area of research. Can J Psychiatry. 2013; 58(5): 260273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
211. Evans, AH, Pavese, N, Lawrence, AD, etal. Compulsive drug use linked to sensitized ventral striatal dopamine transmission. Ann Neurol. 2006; 59(5): 852858.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
212. Millan, MJ, Agid, Y, Brüne, M, etal. Cognitive dysfunction in psychiatric disorders: characteristics, causes and the quest for improved therapy. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2012; 11(2): 141168.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
213. Niv, S, Tuvblad, C, Raine, A, Wang, P, Baker, LA. Heritability and longitudinal stability of impulsivity in adolescence. Behav Genet. 2012; 42(3): 378392.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
214. Coccaro, EF, Bergeman, CS, McClearn, GE. Heritability of irritable impulsiveness: a study of twins reared together and apart. Psychiatry Res. 1993; 48: 229249.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
215. Kendler, KS, Aggen, SH, Czajkowski, N, etal. The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for DSM-IV personality disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008; 65(12): 14381446.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
216. Hur, YM, Bouchard, TJ Jr. The genetic correlation between impulsivity and sensation seeking traits. Behav Genet. 1997; 27(5): 455463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
217. Pedersen, NL, Plomin, R, McClearn, GE, Friberg, L. Neuroticism, extraversion, and related traits in adult twins reared apart and reared together. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1988; 55(6): 950957.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
218. Seroczynski, AD, Bergeman, CS, Coccaro, EF. Etiology of the impulsivity/aggression relationship: genes or environment? Psychiatry Res. 1999; 86(1): 4157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
219. Livesley, WJ, Jang, KL, Vernon, PA. Phenotypic and genetic structure of traits delineating personality disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998; 55(10): 941948.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
220. Stoltenberg, SF, Christ, CC, Highland, KB. Serotonin system gene polymorphisms are associated with impulsivity in a context dependent manner. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2012; 39(1): 182191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
221. Gorwood, P, Le Strat, Y, Ramoz, N, etal. Genetics of dopamine receptors and drug addiction. Hum Genet. 2012; 131(6): 803822.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
222. White, MJ, Morris, CP, Lawford, BR, Young, RM. Behavioral phenotypes of impulsivity related to the ANKK1 gene are independent of an acute stressor. Behav Brain Funct. 2008; 4: 54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
223. Eisenberg, DT, Mackillop, J, Modi, M, etal. Examining impulsivity as an endophenotype using a behavioral approach: a DRD2 TaqI A and DRD4 48-bp VNTR association study. Behav Brain Funct. 2007; 3: 2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
224. Rodriguez-Jimenez, R, Ãvila, C, Ponce, G, etal. The TaqIA polymorphism linked to the DRD2 gene is related to lower attention and less inhibitory control in alcoholic patients. Eur Psychiatry. 2006; 21: 6669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
225. Gorwood, P, Le Strat, Y, Ramoz, N, etal. Genetics of dopamine receptors and drug addiction. Hum Genet. 2012; 131(6): 803822.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
226. Robbins, T, Gillan, C, Smith, D, de Wit, S, Ersche, K. Neurocognitive endophenotypes of impulsivity and compulsivity: towards dimensional psychiatry. Trends Cogn Sci. 1996; 16(1): 8191.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
227. Whelan, R, Conrod, PJ, Poline, JB, etal. IMAGEN Consortium. Adolescent impulsivity phenotypes characterized by distinct brain networks. Nat Neurosci. 2012; 15(6): 920925.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
228. Brunner, HG, Nelen, M, Breakefield, XO, Ropers, HH, van Oost, BA. Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A. Science. 1993; 262: 578580.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
229. Bevilacqua, L, Doly, S, Kaprio, J, etal. A population-specific HTR2B stop codon predisposes to severe impulsivity. Nature. 2010; 468(7327): 10611066.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
230. Streeter, CC, Terhune, DB, Whitfield, TH, etal. Performance on the Stroop predicts treatment compliance in cocaine-dependent individuals. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008; 33: 827836.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
231. Marissen, MA, Franken, IH, Waters, AJ, etal. Attentional bias predicts heroin relapse following treatment. Addiction. 2006; 101: 13061312.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
232. Cox, WM, Hogan, LM, Kristian, MR, Race, JH. Alcohol attentional bias as a predictor of alcohol abusers’ treatment outcome. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2002; 68: 237243.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
233. Waters, AJ, Shiffman, S, Sayette, MA, etal. Attentional bias predicts outcome in smoking cessation. Health Psychol. 2003; 22: 378387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
234. Schmitz, JM, Mooney, ME, Green, CE, etal. Baseline neurocognitive profiles differentiate abstainers and non-abstainers in a cocaine clinical trial. J Addict Dis. 2009; 28: 250257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
235. Bowden-Jones, H, McPhillips, M, Rogers, R, Hutton, S, Joyce, E. Risk-taking on tests sensitive to ventromedial prefrontal cortex dysfunction predicts early relapse in alcohol dependency: a pilot study. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2005; 17: 417420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
236. Passetti, F, Clark, L, Mehta, MA, Joyce, E, King, M. Neuropsychological predictors of clinical outcome in opiate addiction. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008; 94: 8291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
237. Krishnan-Sarin, S, Reynolds, B, Duhig, AM, etal. Behavioral impulsivity predicts treatment outcome in a smoking cessation program for adolescent smokers. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007; 88: 7982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
238. Goudriaan, AE, Oosterlaan, J, de Beurs, E, van den Brink, W. The role of self-reported impulsivity and reward sensitivity versus neurocognitive measures of disinhibition and decision-making in the prediction of relapse in pathological gamblers. Psychol Med. 2008; 38: 4150.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
239. Alvarez-Moya, EM, Ochoa, C, Jimenez-Murcia, S, etal. Effect of executive functioning, decision-making and self-reported impulsivity on the treatment outcome of pathologic gambling. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2011; 36: 165175.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
240. Blanco, C, Potenza, MN, Kim, SW, etal. A pilot study of impulsivity and compulsivity in pathological gambling. Psychiatry Res. 2009; 167: 161168.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
241. Grant, JE, Chamberlain, SR, Odlaug, BL, Potenza, MN, Kim, SW. Open-label memantine treatment of pathological gambling reduces gambling severity and cognitive inflexibility: a pilot study. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010; 212(4): 603612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
242. Passetti, F, Clark, L, Davis, P, etal. Risky decision-making predicts short-term outcome of community but not residential treatment for opiate addiction: implications for case management. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011; 118: 1218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
243. Moritz, S, Kloss, M, Jacobsen, D, etal. Neurocognitive impairment does not predict treatment outcome in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behav Res Ther. 2005; 43: 811819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
244. Flessner, CA, Allgair, A, Garcia, A, etal. The impact of neuropsychological functioning on treatment outcome in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. Depress Anxiety. 2010; 27: 365371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
245. Hoexter, MQ, Dougherty, DD, Shavitt, RG, etal. Differential prefrontal gray matter correlates of treatment response to fluoxetine or cognitive-behavioral therapy in obsessive–compulsive disorder. Eur Neuropsychopharm. 2013; 23(7): 569580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
246. Paulus, MP, Tapert, SF, Schuckit, MA. Neural activation patterns of methamphetamine-dependent subjects during decision making predict relapse. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005; 62: 761768.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
247. Worhunsky, PD, Stevens, MC, Carroll, KM, etal. Functional Brain Networks Associated with Cognitive Control, Cocaine Dependence and Treatment Outcome. Psychol Addict Behav. 2013; 27(2): 477488.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
248. Potenza, MN, Balodis, IM, Franco, CA, etal. Neurobiological considerations in understanding behavioral treatments for pathological gambling. Psychol Addict Behav. 2013; 27(2): 380392.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
249. Krishnan-Sarin, S, Balodis, IM, Kober, H, etal. A preliminary examination of the relationship between neural correlates of cognitive control and reduction in cigarette use among treatment-seeking adolescent smokers. Psychol Addict Behav. 2013; 27(2): 526532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
250. Janes, AC, Pizzagalli, DA, Richardt, S, etal. Brain reactivity to smoking cues prior to smoking cessation predicts ability to maintain tobacco abstinence. Biol Psychiatry. 2010; 67(8): 722729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
251. Cousijn, J, Wiers, RW, Ridderinkhof, KR, etal. Individual differences in decision making and reward processing predict changes in cannabis use: a prospective functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Addict Biol. 2013; 18(6): 10131023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
252. O'Neill, J, Gorbis, E, Feusner, JD, etal. Effects of intensive cognitive-behavioral therapy on cingulate neurochemistry in obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Psychiatr Res. 2013; 47(4): 494504.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
253. Hoexter, MQ, de Souza Duran, FL, D'Alcante, CC, etal. Gray matter volumes in obsessive-compulsive disorder before and after fluoxetine or cognitive-behavior therapy: a randomized clinical trial. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012; 37(3): 734745.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
254. Huyser, C, Veltman, DJ, Wolters, LH, de Haan, E, Boer, F. Developmental aspects of error and high-conflict-related brain activity in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: a fMRI study with a Flanker task before and after CBT. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2011; 52(12): 12511260.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
255. Freyer, T, Klöppel, S, Tüscher, O, etal. Frontostriatal activation in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder before and after cognitive behavioral therapy. Psychol Med. 2011; 41(1): 207216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
256. Apostolova, I, Block, S, Buchert, R, etal. Effects of behavioral therapy or pharmacotherapy on brain glucose metabolism in subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder as assessed by brain FDG PET. Psychiatry Res. 2010; 184(2): 105116.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
257. Saxena, S, Gorbis, E, O'Neill, J, etal. Rapid effects of brief intensive cognitive-behavioral therapy on brain glucose metabolism in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Mol Psychiatry. 2009; 14(2): 197205.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
258. Morgenstern, J, Naqvi, NH, Debellis, R, Breiter, HC. The contributions of cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging to understanding mechanisms of behavior change in addiction. Psychol Addict Behav. 2013; 27(2): 336350.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
259. Vollstädt-Klein, S, Loeber, S, Richter, A, etal. Validating incentive salience with functional magnetic resonance imaging: association between mesolimbic cue reactivity and attentional bias in alcohol-dependent patients. Addict Biol. 2011; 17(4): 807816.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
260. DeVito, E, Worhunsky, P, Carroll, K, etal. A preliminary study of the neural effects of behavioral therapy for substance use disorders. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2012; 122(3): 228235.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
261. Martinez, D, Carpenter, KM, Liu, F, etal. Imaging dopamine transmission in cocaine dependence: link between neurochemistry and response to treatment. Am J Psychiatry. 2011; 168(6): 634641. Erratum in: Am J Psychiatry. 2011; 168(5): 553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
262. Del Campo, N, Chamberlain, SR, Sahakian, BJ, Robbins, TW. The roles of dopamine and noradrenaline in the pathophysiology and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2011; 69(12): e145e157.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
263. Mehta, MA, Sahakian, BJ, McKenna, PJ, Robbins, TW. Systemic sulpiride in young adult volunteers simulates the profile of cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1999; 146(2): 162174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
264. Harmer, CJ. Serotonin and emotional processing: does it help explain antidepressant drug action? Neuropharmacology 2008; 55(6): 10231028.Google Scholar

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 109
Total number of PDF views: 875 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th January 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Hostname: page-component-76cb886bbf-wsww6 Total loading time: 0.752 Render date: 2021-01-20T02:45:55.806Z Query parameters: { "hasAccess": "0", "openAccess": "0", "isLogged": "0", "lang": "en" } Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false }