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Functional and clinical insights from neuroimaging studies in childhood-onset schizophrenia

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  03 August 2015

Anna E. Ordóñez*
Affiliation:
Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health/NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
Nevin V. Sastry
Affiliation:
Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health/NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
Nitin Gogtay
Affiliation:
Office of Clinical Research, National Institute of Mental Health/NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
*
*Address for correspondence: Anna E. Ordóñez, MD, MAS, Child Psychiatry Branch, NIMH, NIH, Building 10, Rm 3N202, 10 Center Drive, MSC-1600, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. (Email: annaordonez@mail.nih.gov)

Abstract

Childhood-onset schizophrenia is a rare pediatric onset psychiatric disorder continuous with and typically more severe than its adult counterpart. Neuroimaging research conducted on this population has revealed similarly severe neural abnormalities. When taken as a whole, neuroimaging research in this population shows generally decreased cortical gray matter coupled with white matter connectivity abnormalities, suggesting an anatomical basis for deficits in executive function. Subcortical abnormalities are pronounced in limbic structures, where volumetric deficits are likely related to social skill deficits, and cerebellar deficits that have been correlated to cognitive abnormalities. Structures relevant to motor processing also show a significant alteration, with volumetric increase in basal ganglia structures likely due to antipsychotic administration. Neuroimaging of this disorder shows an important clinical image of exaggerated cortical loss, altered white matter connectivity, and differences in structural development of subcortical areas during the course of development and provides important background to the disease state.

Type
Review Articles
Copyright
© Cambridge University Press 2015 

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