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Buying-shopping disorder—is there enough evidence to support its inclusion in ICD-11?

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  03 January 2019

Astrid Müller
Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
Matthias Brand
General Psychology: Cognition and Center for Behavioral Addiction Research (CeBAR), University of Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg, Germany Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen, Germany
Laurence Claes
Clinical Psychology, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium Collaborative Antwerp Psychiatric Research Institute, University of Antwerp, Belgium
Zsolt Demetrovics
Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary
Martina de Zwaan
Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
Fernando Fernández-Aranda
Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Bellvitge-IDIBELL, Barcelona, Spain
Randy O. Frost
Department of Psychology, Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts, USA
Susana Jimenez-Murcia
Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Bellvitge-IDIBELL, Barcelona, Spain
Michael Lejoyeux
Faculté de Médecine Paris Diderot, Paris, France
Sabine Steins-Loeber
Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Bamberg, Bamberg, Germany
James E. Mitchell
Neuropsychiatric Research Institute, Fargo, North Dakota, USA
Richard Moulding
School of Psychology, Deakin University, Burwood, Australia
Maja Nedeljkovic
Centre for Mental Health, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia
Patrick Trotzke
General Psychology: Cognition and Center for Behavioral Addiction Research (CeBAR), University of Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg, Germany
Aviv Weinstein
Department of Behavioral Science, Ariel University, Ariel, Israel
Michael Kyrios
College of Education, Psychology and Social Work, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia


The phenomenon of buying-shopping disorder (BSD) was described over 100 years ago. Definitions of BSD refer to extreme preoccupation with shopping and buying, to impulses to purchase that are experienced as irresistible, and to recurrent maladaptive buying excesses that lead to distress and impairments. Efforts to stop BSD episodes are unsuccessful, despite the awareness of repeated break-downs in self-regulation, experiences of post-purchase guilt and regret, comorbid psychiatric disorders, reduced quality of life, familial discord, work impairment, financial problems, and other negative consequences. A recent meta-analysis indicated an estimated point prevalence of BSD of 5%. In this narrative review, the authors offer a perspective to consider BSD as a mental health condition and to classify this disorder as a behavioral addiction, based on both research data and on long-standing clinical experience.

© Cambridge University Press 2019 

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