Hostname: page-component-77c89778f8-fv566 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-20T22:10:20.772Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Weathering of Iron-Bearing Minerals in Soils and Saprolite on the North Carolina Blue Ridge Front: II. Clay Mineralogy

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 April 2024

R. C. Graham*
Affiliation:
Department of Soil Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695
S. B. Weed
Affiliation:
Department of Soil Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695
L. H. Bowen
Affiliation:
Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695
D. D. Amarasiriwardena
Affiliation:
Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695
S. W. Buol
Affiliation:
Department of Soil Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695
*
3Present address: Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, California 92521.

Abstract

The mineralogy of the clay fraction was studied for soils and saprolite on two Blue Ridge Front mountain slopes. The clay fraction contained the weathering products of primary minerals in the mica gneiss and schist parent rocks. Gibbsite is most abundant in the saprolite and residual soil horizons, where only chemical weathering has been operable. In colluvial soil horizons, where both physical and chemical weathering have occurred, the clay fraction consists largely of comminuted primary phyllosilicates —muscovite, chlorite, and possibly biotite—and their weathering products: vermiculite, interstratified biotite/vermiculite (B/V), and kaolinite. The clay-size chlorite contains Fe2+ as indicated by Mössbauer spectroscopy, and is more resistant to weathering than biotite. The vermiculite and B/V, both weathering products of biotite, contain Fe3+. Vermiculite in colluvial soils and, especially, surface horizons is weakly hydroxy-interlayered. The kaolinite in the clay fraction resulted at least partly from the comminution of kaolinized biotite in coarser fractions.

The hematite content ranged from 0 to 8% of the clay fraction and strongly correlates (r =.95) with dry clay redness, as measured by the redness rating: RR = (10 - YR hue) × (chroma) ÷ (value). The hematite is largely a product of the weathering of almandine; thus, the soil redness is dependent on the amount of almandine in the parent materials and its degree of weathering in the soils. Goethite (13–22% of the clay fraction) imparts a yellow-brown hue to soils derived from almandine-free parent rocks. The release of Fe in relatively low concentrations during the weathering of Fe-bearing primary minerals, particularly biotite, appears to have promoted the formation of goethite.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © 1989, The Clay Minerals Society

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Allen, B. L., Fanning, D. S., Wilding, L. P., Smeck, N. E. and Hall, G. F., 1983 Composition and soil genesis Pedogenesis and Soil Taxonomy. I. Concepts and Interactions New York Elsevier 141192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Amarasiriwardena, D. D., DeGrave, E., Bowen, L. H. and Weed, S. B., 1986 Quantitative determination of aluminum-substituted goethite-hematite mixtures by Möss-bauer spectroscopy Clays & Clay Minerals 34 250256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, J. U., Swineford, A. and Franks, P. C., 1963 An improved pretreatment for min-eralogical analysis of samples containing organic matter Clays and Clay Minerals, Proc. 10th Natl. Conf., Austin, Texas, 1961 New York Pergamon Press 380388.Google Scholar
Bain, D. C., 1977 The weathering of chlorite minerals in some Scottish soils J. Soil Sci. 28 144164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Banfield, J. F. and Eggleton, R. A., 1988 Transmission electron microscope study of biotite weathering Clays & Clay Minerals 36 4760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barnhisel, R. I., Dixon, J. B. and Weed, S. B., 1977 Chlorites and hydroxy interlayered vermiculite and smectite Minerals in Soil Environments Madison, Wisconsin Soil Science Society of America 331356.Google Scholar
Barnhisel, R. I., ed. (1978) Analyses of clay, silt and sand fractions of selected soils from southeastern United States: Univ. Kentucky Agric. Exp. Sta., Southern Cooperative Bull. 219, 90 pp.Google Scholar
Bigham, J. M., Golden, D. C., Buoi, S. W., Weed, S. B. and Bowen, L. H., 1978 Iron oxide mineralogy of well-drained Ultisols and Oxisols: II. Influence on color, surface area, and phosphate retention Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 42 825830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bowen, L. H., Weed, S. B. and Herber, R. H., 1984 Mössbauer spectroscopy of soils and sediments Chemical Mössbauer Spectroscopy New York Plenum 217242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Calvert, C. S., Buoi, S. W. and Weed, S. B., 1980 Min-eralogical characteristics and transformations of a rock-saprolite-soil profile in the North Carolina Piedmont: II. Feldspar alteration products—Their transformations through the profile Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 44 11041112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Churchman, G. J., Whitton, J. S., Claridge, G. G. C. and Theng, B. K. G., 1984 Intercalation method using formamide for differentiating halloysite from kaolinite Clays & Clay Minerals 32 241248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coffin, D. E., 1963 A method for the determination of free iron in soils and clays Can. J. Soil Sci. 43 717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeGrave, E., Bowen, L. H. and Weed, S. B., 1982 Mössbauer study of aluminum-substituted hematites J. Mag. Mag. Mat. 27 98108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fanning, D. S., Keramidas, V. Z., Dixon, J. B. and Weed, S. B., 1977 Micas Minerals in Soil Environments Madison, Wisconsin Soil Science Society of America 195258.Google Scholar
Golden, D. C., Bowen, L. H., Weed, S. B. and Bigham, J. M., 1979 Mössbauer studies of synthetic and soil-occurring aluminum substituted goethite Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 43 802808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goodman, B. A., Stucki, J. W. and Banawart, W. L., 1980 Mössbauer spectroscopy Advanced Chemical Methods for Soil and Clay Minerals Research Dordrecht D. Reidel 192.Google Scholar
Goodman, B. A. and Wilson, M. J., 1973 A study of the weathering of a biotite using the Mössbauer effect Mineral. Mag. 39 448454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graham, R. C., 1986 Geomorphology, mineral weathering, and pedology in an area of the Blue Ridge Front, North Carolina: Ph.D. dissertation North Carolina North Carolina State University, Raleigh.Google Scholar
Graham, R. C., Weed, S. B., Bowen, L. H. and Buoi, S. W., 1989 Weathering of iron-bearing minerals in soils and saprolite on the North Carolina Blue Ridge Front: I. Sand-size primary minerals Clays & Clay Minerals 37 1928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harris, W.G. Zelazny, L. W. and Bloss, F.D., 1985 Biotite kaolinization in Virginia Piedmont soils: II. Zonation in single grains Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 49 12971302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herbillon, A. J. and Makumbi, M. H., 1975 Weathering of chlorite in a soil derived from a chlorite-schist under humid tropical conditions Geoderma 13 89104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jackson, M. L., 1979 Soil Chemical Analysis—Advanced Course 2nd Wisconsin Publ, by author, Madison.Google Scholar
Keller, W. D. and Bradley, W. F., 1964 The origin of high alumina clay minerals. A review Clays and Clay Minerals, Proc. 12th Natl. Conf, Atlanta, Georgia, 1963 New York Pergamon Press 129156.Google Scholar
Kündig, W., Bommel, H., Constabaris, G. and Lindquist, R. H., 1966 Some properties of supported small a-Fe2O3 particles determined with the Mössbauer effect Phys. Rev. 142 327333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Losche, C. K., McCracken, R. J. and Davey, C. B., 1970 Soils of steeply sloping landscapes in the southern Appalachian Mountains Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 34 473478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rabenhorst, M. C., Fanning, D. S. and Foss, J. E., 1982 Regularly interstratififed chlorite/vermiculite in soils over meta-igneous mafic rocks in Maryland Clays & Clay Minerals 30 156158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rebertus, R. A. and Buoi, S. W., 1985 Iron distribution in a developmental sequence of soils from mica gneiss and schist Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 49 713720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rebertus, R. A., Weed, S. B. and Buoi, S. W., 1986 Transformations of biotite to kaolinite during saprolite-soil weathering Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 50 810819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rice, T. J. Jr. Buoi, S. W. and Weed, S. B., 1985 Soil-saprolite profiles derived from mafic rocks in the North Carolina Piedmont: I. Chemical, morphological and min-eralogical characteristics and transformations Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 49 171178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sawhney, B. L., Dixon, J. B. and Weed, S. B., 1977 Interstratification in layer silicates Minerals in Soil Environments Wisconsin Soil Science Society of America, Madison 405434.Google Scholar
Schwertmann, U. and Stewart, B. A., 1985 The effect of pedogenic environments on iron oxide minerals Advances in Soil Science New York Springer-Verlag 171200.Google Scholar
Schwertmann, U., Taylor, R. M., Dixon, J. B. and Weed, S. B., 1977 Iron oxides Minerals in Soil Environments Wisconsin Soil Science Society of America, Madison 145180.Google Scholar
Theisen, A. A. and Harward, M. E., 1962 A paste method for preparation of slides for clay mineral identification by X-ray diffraction Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 26 9091.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Torrent, J., Schwertmann, U., Fechter, H. and Alferez, F., 1983 Quantitative relationships between soil color and hematite content Soil Sci. 136 354358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Torrent, J., Schwertmann, U. and Schulze, D. G., 1980 Iron oxide mineralogy of some soils of two river terrace sequences in Spain Geoderma 23 191208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilson, M. J., 1967 The clay mineralogy of some soils derived from a biotite-rich quartz-gabbro in the Strathdon area, Aberdeenshire Clay Miner. 7 91100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar