The palygorskite-sepiolite group of clay minerals has a wide range of industrial applications derived mainly from its sorptive, rheological and catalytic properties which are based on the fabric, surface area, porosity, crystal morphology, structure and composition of these minerals. For assessing potential industrial uses, the mineralogical and chemical composition of the clay and its basic physical and physico-chemical parameters must be determined. Then some particular properties of commercial interest can be modified and improved by appropriate thermal, mechanical and acid treatments, surface active agents, organo-mineral derivatives formation, etc. In this paper, a revision of the principal characteristics of commercial palygorskite-sepiolite clays is presented, and potential uses are suggested according to these data. New products and applications are being investigated and those concerning environmental protection in particular, are noted. Finally, possible health effects of these elongate clay minerals are discussed.