Skip to main content Accessibility help

Unique but diverse: some observations on the formation, structure and morphology of halloysite

  • G. Jock Churchman (a1), P. Pasbakhsh (a2), D.J. Lowe (a3) and B.K.G. Theng (a4)


New insights from the recent literature are summarized and new data presented concerning the formation, structure and morphology of halloysite. Halloysite formation by weathering always requires the presence of water. Where substantial drying occurs, kaolinite is formed instead. Halloysite formation is favoured by a low pH. The octahedral sheet is positively charged at pH < ∼8, whereas the tetrahedral sheet is negatively charged at pH > ∼2. The opposing sheet charge would facilitate interlayer uptake of H2O molecules. When halloysite intercalates certain polar organic molecules, additional (hkl) reflections appear in the X-ray diffraction pattern, suggesting layer re-arrangement which, however, is dissimilar to that in kaolinite. Associated oxides and oxyhydroxides of Fe and Mn may limit the growth of halloysite particles as does incorporation of Fe into the structure. Particles of different shape and Fe content may occur within a given sample of halloysite.


Corresponding author


Hide All
Abdullayev, E. & Lvov, Y. (2013) Halloysite clay nanotubes as a ceramic “skeleton” for functional biopolymer composites with sustained drug release. Journal of Materials Chemistry B, 1, 28942903.10.1039/c3tb20059k
Abdullayev, E. & Lvov, Y. (2015) Halloysite tubule nanoreactors in industrial and agricultural applica-tions. Pp. 363382 in: Natural Mineral Nanotubes (P. Pasbakhsh & G.J. Churchman, editors). Apple Academic Press, Oakville, Canada.10.1201/b18107-28
Adams, J.M. (1978) Unifying features relating to the 3D structures of some intercalates of kaolinite. Clays and Clay Minerals, 26, 291295.10.1346/CCMN.1978.0260406
Alexander, L.T., Faust, G.T., Hendricks, S.B., Insley, H. & McMurdie, H.F. (1943) Relationship of the clay minerals halloysite and endellite. American Mineralogist, 28, 118.
Allison, G.B. & Hughes, M.W. (1978) The use of environmental chloride and tritium to estimate total recharge to an unconfined aquifer. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 16, 181195.10.1071/SR9780181
Ames, L.L. & Sand, L.B. (1957) Halloysite formed in a calcareous hot spring environment. Clays and Clay Minerals, 6, 378385.10.1346/CCMN.1957.0060127
Anton, O. & Rouxhet, P.G. (1977) Note on the intercalation of kaolinite and halloysite by dimethyl-sulfoxide. Clays and Clay Minerals, 25, 259263.10.1346/CCMN.1977.0250402
Bailey, S.W. (1990) Halloysite: a critical assessment. Pp. 8998 in: Proceedings of the 9th International Clay Conference 1989 (V.C. Farmer & Y Tardy, editors). Sciences Géologiques, Mémoire 86, Strasbourg, France.
Barbetti, M. & Sheard, M.J. (1981) Palaeomagnetic measurements from Mounts Gambier and Schank, South Australia. Geological Society of Australia Journal, 28, 385394.10.1080/00167618108729177
Berthier, P. (1826) Analyse de l'halloysite. Annales de Chimie et de Physique, 32, 332335.
Bordallo, H.N., Aldridge, L.P., Churchman, G.J., Gates, W.P., Telling, M.T.F., Kiefer, K., Fouquet, P., Seydel, T. & Kimber, S.A.J. (2008) Quasi-elastic neutron scattering studies on clay interlayer-space highlighting the effect of the cation in confined water dynamics. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 112, 1398213991.10.1021/jp803274j
Brathwaite, R.L., Christie, A.B., Faure, K., Townsend, M.G. & Terlesk, S. (2012) Origin of the Matauri Bay halloysite deposit, Northland, New Zealand. Mineralium Deposita, 47, 897910.10.1007/s00126-012-0404-9
Brathwaite, R.L., Christie, A.B., Faure, K., Townsend, M.G. & Terlesk, S. (2014) Geology, mineralogy and geochemistry of the rhyolite-hosted Maungaparerua clay deposit, Northland. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 57, 357368.10.1080/00288306.2014.920889
Brindley, G.W. (1961) Kaolin, serpentine and kindred minerals. Pp. 51131 in: The X-ray Identification and Crystal Structures of Clay Minerals (G. Brown, editor). Mineralogical Society, London, UK.
Brindley, G.W. & Robinson, K. (1946) Randomness in the structures of kaolinitic clay minerals. Transactions of the Faraday Society, 42B, 198205.10.1039/tf946420b198
Calvert, C.S., Buol, S.W. & Weed, S.B. (1980) Mineralogical transformations of a vertical rock-saprolite-soil sequence in the North Carolina Piedmont. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 44, 10961112.10.2136/sssaj1980.03615995004400050044x
Christidis, G.E. (2013) Assessment of industrial clays. Pp. 42550 in: Handbook of Clay Science. Part B. Techniques and Applications, 2nd edition (F. Bergaya & G. Lagaly, editors). Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.10.1016/B978-0-08-098259-5.00017-2
Chukhrov, F.V. & Zvyagin, B.B. (1966) Halloysite, a crystallochemically and mineralogically distinct species. Pp. 1125 in: Proceedings of the International Clay Conference 1966 (L. Heller & A. Weiss, editors). Israel Program for Scientific Translation, Jerusalem, Israel.
Churchman, G.J. (1970) Interlayer water in halloysite. Unpublished PhD Thesis lodged in the Library, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
Churchman, G.J. (1990) Relevance of different intercal-ation tests for distinguishing halloysite from kaolinite in soils. Clays and Clay Minerals, 38, 591599.10.1346/CCMN.1990.0380604
Churchman, G.J. (2000) The alteration and formation of soil minerals by weathering. Pp. F3-F76 in: Handbook of Soil Science (M.E. Sumner, editor). CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.
Churchman, G.J. (2010) Is the geological concept of clay minerals appropriate for soil science? A literature-based and philosophical analysis. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 35, 927940.10.1016/j.pce.2010.05.009
Churchman, G.J. (2015) The identification and nomen-clature of halloysite (a historical perspective). Pp. 5167 in: Natural Mineral Nanotubes (P. Pasbakhsh & G.J. Churchman, editors). Apple Academic Press, Oakville, Canada.10.1201/b18107-5
Churchman, G.J. & Carr, R.M. (1975) The definition and nomenclature of halloysites. Clays and Clay Minerals, 23, 382388.10.1346/CCMN.1975.0230510
Churchman, G.J. & Gilkes, R.J. (1989) Recognition of intermediates in the possible transformation of halloysite to kaolinite. Clay Minerals, 24, 579590.10.1180/claymin.1989.024.4.02
Churchman, G.J. & Lowe, D.J. (2012) Alteration, formation and occurrence of minerals in soils. Pp. 20.1–20.72 in: Handbook of Soil Sciences. Properties and Processes, 2nd edition (P.M. Huang, Y Li & M.E. Sumner, editors). CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.
Churchman, G.J. & Lowe, D.J. (2014) Clay minerals in South Australian Holocene basaltic volcanogenic soils and implications for halloysite genesis and structure. Pp. 36 in: Proceedings of the 23rd Biennial Australian Clay Minerals Society Conference (R. Gilkes, editor). University of Western Australia, Perth. Published at
Churchman, G.J. & Theng, B.K.G. (1984) Interactions of halloysites with amides: mineralogical factors affecting complex formation. Clay Minerals, 19, 161175.10.1180/claymin.1984.019.2.04
Churchman, G.J., Whitton, J.S., Claridge, G.G.C. & Theng, B.K.G. (1984) Intercalation method using formamide for differentiating halloysite from kaolinite. Clays and Clay Minerals, 32, 241248.10.1346/CCMN.1984.0320401
Churchman, G.J., Davy, T.J., Aylmore, L.A.G., Gilkes, R.J. & Self, P.G. (1995) Characteristics of fine pores in some halloysites. Clay Minerals, 30, 8998.10.1180/claymin.1995.030.2.01
Churchman, G.J., Pontifex, I.R. & McClure, S.G. (2010) Factors affecting the formation and characteristics of halloysites or kaolinites in granitic and tuffaceous saprolites in Hong Kong. Clays and Clay Minerals, 58, 220237.10.1346/CCMN.2010.0580207
Clay Minerals Society (2015) Glossary of Clay Terms April 2015. (accessed 22 January 2016)
Costanzo, P.M. & Giese, R.F. Jr (1986) Ordered halloysite: dimethylsulfoxide intercalate. Clays and Clay Minerals, 43, 105107.10.1346/CCMN.1986.0340115
Cravero, F. & Churchman, G.J. (2016) The origin of spheriodal halloysite: a review of the literature. Clay Minerals, 51, 417427.10.1180/claymin.2016.051.3.13
Dahlgren, R.A., Saigusa, M. & Ugolini, F.C. (2004) The nature, properties and management of volcanic soils. Advances in Agronomy, 82, 113182.10.1016/S0065-2113(03)82003-5
Dupuis, C. & Ertus, R. (1995) The karstic origin of the type halloysite in Belgium. Pp. 262366 in: Clays Controlling the Environment — Proceeding of the 10th International Clay Conference, Adelaide 1993 (G.J. Churchman, R.W. Fitzpatrick & R.A. Eggleton, editors). CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, Australia.
Eswaran, H. & Heng, Y.Y. (1976)Theweatheringofbiotitein a profile on gneiss in Malaysia. Geoderma, 16, 920.10.1016/0016-7061(76)90090-2
Eswaran, H. & Wong, C.B. (1978) A study of a deep weathering profile on granite in Peninsular Malaysia. Parts I, II, and III. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 42, 144158.10.2136/sssaj1978.03615995004200010032x
Fieldes, M. (1968) Clay mineralogy. Pp. 2239 in: Soils of New Zealand, Part 2. New Zealand Soil Bureau Bulletin, 26(2), New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Wellington.
Fieldes, M. & Swindale, L.D. (1954) Chemical weathering of silicates in soil formation. New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology, B36, 140154.
Fordham, A.W. & Norrish, K. (1974) Direct measurement of the composition of soil components which retain added arsenate. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 12, 165172.10.1071/SR9740165
Galán, E. (2006) Genesis of clay minerals. Pp. 11291162 in: Handbook of Clay Science (F. Bergaya, B.K.G. Theng & G. Lagaly, editors). Developments in Clay Science, Vol. 1, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.10.1016/S1572-4352(05)01042-1
Gouramanis, C., Wilkins, S. & De Deckker, P. (2010) 6000 years of environmental changes recorded in Blue Lake, South Australia, based on ostracod ecology and valve chemistry. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimat-ology, Palaeoecology, 297, 223237.10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.08.005
Guggenheim, S. (2015) Phyllosilicates used as nanotube substrates in engineered materials: structures, chemistries, and textures. Pp. 448 in: Natural Mineral Nanotubes (P. Pasbakhsh & G. J. Churchman, editors). Apple Academic Press, Oakville, Canada.
Gupta, Y. & Miller, J.D. (2010) Surface force measure-ments at the basal planes of ordered kaolinite particles. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 344, 362371.10.1016/j.jcis.2010.01.012
Hamblin, A.P. & Greenland, D.J. (1972) Mineralogy of soils from the Holocene volcanic area of southern Australia. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 10, 6172.10.1071/SR9720061
Henmi, T. & Wada, K. (1976) Morphology and composition of allophane. American Mineralogist, 61, 379390.
Hofmann, U., Endell, K. & Wilm, D. (1934) Röntgenogra-phische und kolloidchemische Untersuchungen über Ton. Angewandte Chemie, 47, 539547.10.1002/ange.19340473002
Honjo, G., Kitamura, N. & Mihama, K. (1954) A study of clay minerals by means of single crystal electron diffraction diagrams - the structure of tubular kaolin. Clay Minerals Bulletin, 2, 133141.10.1180/claymin.1954.002.12.03
Jacobs, H. & Sterckx, M. (1970) Contribution à létude de Pintercalation du diméthylsulfoxyde dans le réseau de la kaolinite. Pp. 154160 in: Reunion Hispano-Belga de Minerales de la Arcilla (J.M. Serratosa, editor). Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid, Spain.
Jahn, R., Zarei, M. & Stahr, K. (1987) Formation of clay minerals in soils developed from basic volcanic rocks under semiarid climatic conditions in Lanzarote, Spain. Catena, 14, 359368.10.1016/0341-8162(87)90027-0
Janik, L.J. & Keeling, J.L. (1993) FT-IR partial least-squares analysis of tubular halloysite in kaolin samples from the Mount Hope kaolin deposit. Clay Minerals, 28, 365378.10.1180/claymin.1993.028.3.03
Joussein, E. (2016) Geology and mineralogy of nanosized tubular halloysite. Pp. 1248 in: Nanosized Tubular Clay Minerals, Halloysite and Innogolite (P. Yuan, A. Thill & F. Bergaya, editors). Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Joussein, E., Petit, S., Churchman, J., Theng, B., Righi, D. & Delvaux, B. (2005) Halloysite clay minerals — a review. Clay Minerals, 40, 38326.10.1180/0009855054040180
Joussein, E., Petit, S. & Delvaux, B. (2007) Behaviour of halloysite clay under formamide treatment. Applied Clay Science, 35, 1724.10.1016/j.clay.2006.07.002
Keeling, J.L. (2015) The mineralogy, geology and occurrences of halloysite. Pp. 95115 in: Natural MineralNanotubes (P. Pasbakhsh & G.J. Churchman, editors). Apple Academic Press, Oakville, Canada.
Keeling, J.L., Self, P.G. & Raven, M.D. (2010) Halloysite in Cenozoic sediments along the Eucla Basin margin. MESA Journal, 59, 913.
Kogure, T., Mori, K., Kimura, Y. & Takai, Y. (2011) Unraveling the stacking structure in tubular halloysite using a new TEM with computer-assisted minimal-dose system. American Mineralogist, 96, 17761780.10.2138/am.2011.3907
Kogure, T., Mori, K., Drits, V.A. & Takai, Y. (2013) Structure of prismatic halloysite. American Mineralogist, 98, 10081016.10.2138/am.2013.4385
Kohyama, N., Fukushima, K. & Fukami, A. (1978) Observation of the hydrated form of tubular halloysite by an electron microscope equipped with an environmental cell. Clays and Clay Minerals, 26, 250.10.1346/CCMN.1978.0260103
Kulbicki, G. (1954) Diagrammes de diffraction électronique de microcristaux de kaolinite et d'halloy-site et observations sur la structure de ces mineraux. Comptes rendus de l’Académie des Sciences, Paris, 238, 24052407.
Lagaly, G., Ogawa, M. & Dékány, I. (2013) Clay mineral-organic interactions. Pp. 437505 in: Handbook of Clay Science. Part A. Fundamentals, 2nd edition (F. Bergaya & G. Lagaly, editors). Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Lowe, D.J. (1986) Controls on the rates of weathering and clay mineral genesis in airfall tephras: a review and New Zealand case study. Pp. 265330 in: Rates of Chemical Weathering of Rocks and Minerals (S.M. Colman & D.P. Dethier, editors). Academic Press, Orlando, Florida, USA.
Lowe, D.J. (1992) Profile Descriptions of Quaternary Basaltic Volcanogenic Soils of the Mount Gambier Area, Southeast South Australia. CSIRO Division of Soils Technical Report, 9/1992, 1-26.
Lowe, D.J. (1995) Teaching clays: from ashes to allophane. Pp. 1923 in: Clays Controlling the Environment -Proceedings of the 10th International Clay Conference, Adelaide 1993 (G.J. Churchman, R.W. Fitzpatrick & R.A. Eggleton, editors). CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, Australia.
Lowe, D.J. (2010) Introduction to the landscapes and soils of the Hamilton Basin. Pp. 1.24–1.61 in: Guidebook for Pre-conference North Island, New Zealand “Volcanoes to Oceans” Field Tour. 19th World Soils Congress, International Union of Soil Sciences, Brisbane (D.J. Lowe, V.E. Neall, M. Hedley, B. Clothier & A. Mackay, editors). Soil and Earth Sciences Occasional Publication, 3, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
Lowe, D.J. & Nelson, C.S. (1994) Guide to theNature and Methods of Analysis of the Clay Fraction of Tephras in the South Auckland Region, New Zealand. Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waikato, Occasional Report (Revised), 11, 169.
Lowe, D.J., & Palmer, D.J. (2005) Andisols of New Zealand and Australia. Journal of Integrated Field Science, 2, 3965.
Lowe, D.J. & Percival, H.J. (1993) Clay mineralogy of tephras and associated paleosols and soils, and hydrothermal deposits, North Island. Guidebook for Field TourF1 -New Zealand. 10th International Clay Conference, Adelaide, Australia, F1, 1-110.
Lowe, D.J., Churchman, G.J., Merry, R.H., Fitzpatrick, R.W., Sheard, M.J. & Hudnall, W.H. (1996) Holocene basaltic volcanogenic soils of the Mt Gambier area, South Australia, are unusual globally: what do they tell us? Proceedings of the Australian Society of Soil Science and New Zealand Society of Soil Science National Soils Conference, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia, Vol. 2, 153-154.
MacEwan, D.M.C. (1947) The nomenclature of the halloysite minerals. Mineralogical Magazine, 28, 364.10.1180/minmag.1947.028.196.08
Mehmel, M. (1935) Über die Structur von Halloysit und Metahalloysit. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, 90, 353.
Mizota, C. & van Reeuwijk, L.P. (1989) Clay mineralogy and chemistry of soils formed in volcanic material in diverse climatic regions. International Soil Reference and Information Centre Monograph, 2, 1185.
Moon, V.G., Lowe, D.J., Cunningham, M.J., Wyatt, J., Churchman, G.J., de Lange, W.P., Mörz, T., Kreiter, S., Kluger, M.O. & Jorat, M.E. (2015) Sensitive pyro-clastic-derived halloysitic soils in northern New Zealand: interplay of microstructure, minerals, and geomechanics. Pp. 321 in: Volcanic Rocks and Soils. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Volcanic Rocks and Soils, Lacco Ameno, Ischia Island, Italy (T. Rotonda, M. Cecconi, F. Silvestri & P. Tommasi, editors). Taylor & Francis, London, UK.
Murad, E. & Cashion, J. (2004) Mössbauer Spectroscopy of Environmental Materials and their Industrial Utilization. Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.10.1007/978-1-4419-9040-2
Murray-Wallace, C.N. (2011) Comment on: “New 40Ar/39Ar ages for selected young (<1 Ma) basalt flows of the Newer Volcanic Province, southeastern Australia” by E. Matchan & D. Phillips. Quaternary Geochronology 6, 598599.10.1016/j.quageo.2011.07.001
Newman, R.H., Childs, C.W. & Churchman, G.J. (1994) Aluminium coordination and structural disorder in halloysite and kaolinite by 27Al NMR spectroscopy. Clay Minerals, 29, 305312.10.1180/claymin.1994.029.3.01
Norrish, K. (1995) An unusual fibrous halloysite. Pp. 275284 in: Clays Controlling the Environment — Proceedings of the 10th International Clay Conference, Adelaide 1993 (G.J. Churchman, R.W. Fitzpatrick & R.A. Eggleton, editors). CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, Australia.
NZ Soil Bureau (1968) Soils of New Zealand, Part 2. New Zealand Soil Bureau Bulletin, 26(2), New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Wellington.
Papoulis, D., Tsolis-Katagas, P. & Katagas, C. (2004) Progressive stages in the formation of kaolinite from halloysite in the weathering of plagioclase. Clays and Clay Minerals, 52, 271285.
Parfitt, R.L. (1990) Soils formed in tephra in different climatic regimes. Transactions of the 14th International Congress of Soil Science, Kyoto, Vol. 7, 134-139.
Parfitt, R.L. & Wilson, A.D. (1985) Estimation of allophane and halloysite in three sequences of volcanic soils, New Zealand. Catena Supplement, 7, 18.
Parfitt, R.L., Russell, M. & Orbell, G.E. (1983) Weathering sequence of soils from volcanic ash involving allophane and halloysite, New Zealand. Geoderma, 29, 4157.10.1016/0016-7061(83)90029-0
Parfitt, R.L., Saigusa, M. & Cowie, J.D. (1984) Allophane and halloysite formation in a volcanic ash bed under differing moisture conditions. Soil Science, 138, 360364.10.1097/00010694-198411000-00007
Parfitt, R.L., Childs, C.W. & Eden, D.N. (1988) Ferrihydrite and allophane in four Andepts from Hawaii and implications for their classification. Geoderma, 41, 223241.
Pasbakhsh, P., Churchman, G.J. & Keeling, J.L. (2013) Characterisation of properties of various halloysites relevant to their use as nanotubes and microfibre fillers. Applied Clay Science, 74, 4757.10.1016/j.clay.2012.06.014
Pochet, G., Van der Velde, M., Vanclooster, M. & Delvaux, B. (2007) Hydric properties of high charge, halloysitic clay soils from the tropical South Pacific region. Geoderma, 138, 96109.10.1016/j.geoderma.2006.10.019
Polyak, V.J. & Güven, N. (1996) Alunite, natroalunite and hydrated halloysite in Carlsbad Cavern and Lechuguilla cave, New Mexico. Clays and Clay Minerals, 44, 843850.10.1346/CCMN.1996.0440616
Rasmussen, C., Matsuyama, N., Dahlgren, R.A., Southard, R.J. & Brauer, N. (2007) Soil genesis and mineral transformation across an environmental gradient on andesitic lahar. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 71, 225237.10.2136/sssaj2006.0100
Renac, C. & Assassi, F. (2009) Formation of non-expandable 7 Å halloysite during Eocene—Miocene continental weathering at Djebel Debbagh, Algeria: a geochemical and stable-isotope study. Sedimentary Geology, 217, 140153.10.1016/j.sedgeo.2009.04.001
Robertson, G.B., Prescott, J.R. & Hutton, J.T. (1996) Thermoluminescence dating of volcanic activity at Mount Gambier, South Australia. Royal Society of South Australia Transactions, 120, 712.
Ross, G.J., Kodama, H., Wang, C., Gray, J.T. & Lafreniere, L.B. (1983) Halloysite from a strongly weathered soil at Mont Jacques Cartier, Quebec. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 47, 327332.10.2136/sssaj1983.03615995004700020031x
Saigusa, M., Shoji, S. & Kato, T. (1978) Origin and nature of halloysite in Ando soils from Towada tephra. Geoderma, 20, 115129.10.1016/0016-7061(78)90039-3
Sanchez Comazano, M. & Gonzalez Garcia, S. (1966) Complejos interlaminares de caolinita y haloisita con liquidos polares. Anales de Edafologia y Agrobiologia, 24, 495520.
Sheard, M.J. (1990) A guide to Quaternary volcanoes in the Lower South-east of South Australia. Mines and Energy Review South Australia, 157, 4050.
Sheard, M.J., Lowe, D.J. & Froggatt, P.C. (1993) Mineralogy of pyroclastic and lava deposits of Holocene basaltic volcanoes of Mts Gambier and Schank, South Australia. Abstracts, IAVCEI International Volcanological Congress, Canberra, p. 98.
Silber, A., Bar-Yosef, B., Singer, A. & Chen, Y. (1994) Mineralogical and chemical composition of three tuffs from northern Israel. Geoderma, 63, 123144.10.1016/0016-7061(94)90002-7
Singer, A., Zarei, M., Lange, F.M. & Stahr, K. (2004) Halloysite characteristics and formation in the northern Golan Heights. Geoderma, 123, 279295.10.1016/j.geoderma.2004.02.012
Singleton, P.L., McLeod, M. & Percival, H.J. (1989) Allophane and halloysite content and soil solution silicon in soils from rhyolitic volcanic material, New Zealand. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 27, 6777.10.1071/SR9890067
Smith, B.W. & Prescott, J.R. (1987) Thermoluminescence dating of volcanic activity at Mt Schank, South Australia. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 34, 335342.10.1080/08120098708729415
Soil Survey Staff (2014) Keys to Soil Taxonomy, 12th edition. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington, D.C., 1-362.
Soma, M., Churchman, G.J. & Theng, B.K.G. (1992) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis of halloysites with different composition and particle morphology. Clay Minerals, 27, 413421.10.1180/claymin.1992.027.4.02
Southard, S.B. & Southard, R.J. (1989) Mineralogy and classification of andic soils in north-eastern California. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 53, 17841791.10.2136/sssaj1989.03615995005300060029x
Sposito, G. (1994) The Surface Chemistry of Natural Particles. Oxford University Press, New York, USA.
Sposito, G. (2008) The Chemistry of Soils, 2nd edition. Oxford University Press, New York, USA.
Srodon, J. (2013) Identification and quantitative analysis of clay minerals. Pp. 2549 in: Handbook of Clay Science. Part B. Techniques and Applications, 2nd edition (F. Bergaya & G. Lagaly, editors). Elsevier, Amsterdam.10.1016/B978-0-08-098259-5.00004-4
Stevens, K.F. & Vucetich, C.G. (1985) Weathering of Upper Quaternary tephras in New Zealand 2. Clay minerals and their climatic interpretation. Chemical Geology, 53, 237247.10.1016/0009-2541(85)90073-7
Takahashi, T., Dahlgren, R.A. & van Susteren, P. (1993) Clay mineralogy and chemistry of soils formed in volcanic materials in the xeric moisture regime of northern California. Geoderma, 59, 131150.10.1016/0016-7061(93)90066-T
Takahashi, T., Dahlgren, R.A., Theng, B.K.G., Whitton, J.S. & Soma, M. (2001) Potassium-selective, halloysite-rich soils formed in volcanic materials from northern California. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 65, 516526.
Takesako, H., Lowe, D.J., Churchman, G.J. & Chittleborough, D.J. (2010) Holocene volcanic soils in the Mt. Gambier region, South Australia. Pp. 4750 in: Proceedings of the 19th World Congress of Soil Science, International Union of Soil Sciences, Brisbane, Symposium 1.3.1 (R.J. Gilkes & N. Prakongkep, editors). Published at (World Soil Congresses).
Tazaki, K. (1979) Micromorphology of halloysites pro-duced by weathering of plagioclase in volcanic ash. Pp. 415422 in: Proceedings of the 6th International Clay Conference 1978 (M.M. Mortland & V.C. Farmer, editors). Developments in Sedimentology, 27, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Tazaki, K. (1982) Analytical electron microscopic studies of halloysite formation processes: morphology and composition of halloysite. Pp. 573584 in: Proceedings of the 7th International Clay Conference 1981 (H. Van Olphen & F. Veniale, editors). Developments in Sedimentology, 35, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Tazaki, K. (2005) Microbial formation of a halloysite-like mineral. Clays and Clay Minerals, 53, 224233.10.1346/CCMN.2005.0530303
Theng, B.K.G., Churchman, G.J., Whitton, J.S. & Claridge, G.G.C. (1984) Comparison of intercalation methods for differentiating halloysite from kaolinite. Clays and Clay Minerals, 32, 249258.10.1346/CCMN.1984.0320402
Thompson, J.G. & Cuff, C. (1985) Crystal structure of kaolinite-dimethylsulfoxide intercalate. Clays and Clay Minerals, 33, 490500.10.1346/CCMN.1985.0330603
Torn, M.S., Trumbore, S.E., Chadwick, O.A., Vitousek, P.M. & Hendricks, D.M. (1997) Mineral control of soil organic carbon storage and turnover. Nature, 389, 170173.10.1038/38260
Ugolini, F.C. & Dahlgren, R.A. (2002) Soil development in volcanic ash. Global Environmental Research, 6, 6981.
van Otterloo, J., Cas, R.A.F. & Sheard, M.J. (2013) Eruption processes and deposit characteristics at the monogenetic Mt. Gambier Volcanic Complex, SE Australia: implications for alternating magmatic and phreatomagmatic activity. Bulletin ofVolcanology, 75, 737 (pp. 121).
Vergaro, V., Abdullayev, E., Lvov, Y.M., Zeitoun, A., Cingolani, R., Rinaldi, R. & Leporatti, S. (2010) Cytocompatibility and uptake of halloysite clay nanotubes. Biomacromolecules, 11, 820826.10.1021/bm9014446
Waser, J. (1955) Fourier transforms and scattering intensities of tubular objects. Acta Crystallographica, 8, 142150.10.1107/S0365110X55000583
Whittaker, E.J.W. (1954) The diffraction of X-rays by a cylindrical lattice. Acta Crystallographica, 7, 827837.10.1107/S0365110X5400254X
Ziegler, K., Hsieh, I.C.C., Chadwick, O.A., Kelly, E.F., Hendricks, D.M. & Savin, S.M. (2003) Halloysite as a kinetically controlled end product of arid-zone basalt weathering. Chemical Geology, 202, 461478.


Unique but diverse: some observations on the formation, structure and morphology of halloysite

  • G. Jock Churchman (a1), P. Pasbakhsh (a2), D.J. Lowe (a3) and B.K.G. Theng (a4)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed