Skip to main content Accessibility help

Synthesis of illite-smectite from smectite at Earth surface temperatures and high pH

  • D. D. Eberl (a1), B. Velde (a2) and T. Mccormick (a3)


It is well known that illite-smectite can form from smectite at elevated temperatures in natural and experimental systems. However, the conversion of smectite to illite-smectite is also found in some natural systems that have never been heated. The present experiments show that illite layers can form from smectite by chemical reaction at 35° and 60°C at high solution pH. The rate of this reaction is accelerated by wetting and drying.



Hide All
Andersson, K., Allard, B., Bengtsson, M. & Magnusson, B. (1989) Chemical composition of cement pore waters. Cement Concrete Res. 19, 327332.
Eberl, D.D., Środoń, J. & Northrop, H.R. (1986) Potassium fixation in smectite by wetting and drying. Pp. 296-326 in: Geochemical Processes at Mineral Surfaces (J.A. Davis & K.F. Hayes, Editors). Amer. Chem. Soc. Syrup. Ser. 323.
Eberl, D.D., Środoń J., Lee, M., Nadeau, P.H. & Northrop, H.R. (1987) Sericite from the Silverton caldera, Colorado: correlation among structure, Composition, Origin, And particle thickness. Am. Miner. 72, 914934.
Freed, R.L. & Peacor, D.R. (1992) Diagenesis and the formation of illite-rich I/S crystals in Gulf Coast shales. J. Sed. Pet. 62, 220234.
Hower, J., Eslinger, E.V., Hower, M.E. & Perry, E.A. (1976) Mechanism of burial metamorphism of argillaceous sediment: 1. Mineralogical and chemical evidence. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 87, 725737.
Hoffman, J. & Hower, J. (1979) Clay mineral assemblages as low grade metamorphic geothermometers: Application to the thrust faulted disturbed belt of Montana, Usa. Pp. 55-79 in: Aspects of Diagenesis (P.A. Scholle & P.R. Schluger, Editors) Soc. Econ. Paleontol. Mineral. Special Publ. 26.
Inoue, A., Watanabe, Z., Kohyama, N. & Brusewitz, A.M. (1990) Characterization of illitization of smectite in bentonite beds at Kinnekulle. Sweden. Clays Clay Miner. 38, 241249.
Khoury, H.N. & Eberl, D. (1981) Montmorillonite from the Amargosa Desert, Southern Nevada, Usa. N. Jb. Miner. Abh. 141, 134141.
Kumar, S., Yen, T.F., Chilingarian, G.V. & Donaldson, E.C. (1989) Alkaline flooding. Pp. 220-254 in: Enhanced Oil Recovery, H-Process and Operations (E.C. Donaldson, G.V. Chilingarian & T.F. Yen, Editors) Developments in Petroleum Science, Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Lee, S.Y. & Tank, R.W. (1985) Role of clays in the disposal of nuclear waste: a review. Appl. Clay Sci. 1,145-162.
Luden, I. & Andersson, K. (1989) Modeling the mixing of cement pore water and groundwater using the PHREEQE code. Mat. Res. Soc. Syrup. Proc. 127, 949956.
Jennings, S. & Thompson, G.R. (1986) Diagenesis of Plio-Pleistocene sediments of the Colorado River Delta, Southern California. J. Sed. Pet. 56, 8998.
Mohnot, S.M., Bae, J.H. & Foley, W.L. (1987) A study of mineral/alkali reactions. SPE Reservoir Engineering, Nov. 1987, 653-663.
Moll, W.F., Johns, W.D. & Van Olphen, H. (1975) Source clay minerals. Abstract Int. Clay Conf. Mexico, 465.
Moore, D.M. & Reynolds, R.C. Jr. (1989) X-ray Diffraction and the Identification and Analysis of Clay Minerals. Oxford Univ. Press, New York.
Nadeau, P.H. & Reynolds, R.C. Jr. (1981) Burial metamorphism in the Mancos Shal. Clays Clay Miner. 19, 249259.
Nadeau, P.H., Wilson, M.J., Mchardy, W.J. & Tait, J.M. (1984) Interstratified clay as fundamental particles. Science 225, 923925.
Pollastro, R.M. (1990) The illite/smectite geothemometer-concepts, Methodology, And application to basin history and hydrocarbon generation. Pp. 1-18 in: Applications of Thermal Maturation Studies to Energy Exploration (V.F. Nuccio & C.E. Barker, Editors). RMS-SEPM.
Savage, D., Bateman, K., Hill, P., Hughes, C., Milodowski, A., Pearce, J., Rae, E. & Rochelle, C. (1992) Rate and mechanism of the reaction of silicates with cement pore waters. Appl. Clay Sci. 7, 3345.
Singer, A. & Stoffers, P. (1980) Clay mineral diagenesis in two African lake sediments. Clay Miner. 15, 291307.
Środoń A. & Elsass, F., Mchardy, W.J. & Morgan, D.J. (1992) Chemistry of illite-smectite from TEM measurements of fundamental particles. Clay Miner. 27, 137158.
Turner, C.E. & Fishman, N.S. (1991) Jurassic Lake T'oo'dichi': A large alkaline, Saline lake, Morrison Formation, Eastern Colorado Plateau. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 103, 538558.
Whitney, G. & Northrop, H.R. (1988) Experimental investigation of the smectite to illite reaction: Dual reaction mechanisms and oxygen-isotope systematics. Am. Miner. 73, 7790.

Synthesis of illite-smectite from smectite at Earth surface temperatures and high pH

  • D. D. Eberl (a1), B. Velde (a2) and T. Mccormick (a3)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed