Skip to main content Accessibility help

The rapid estimation of the layer charges of 2:1 expanding clays from a single alkylammonium ion expansion

  • A. C. Olis (a1), P. B. Malla (a2) and L. A. Douglas (a3)


An empirical method to estimate rapidly both mean total layer charge and location of charge in smectites and vermiculites is presented, involving exchange with a long-chain alkylammonium ion before and after the Greene-Kelly test. The method utilizes an empirically determined relationship between XRD basal spacings and the mean layer charges calculated from the conventional n-alkylammonium ion-exchange technique using simple linear regression models to describe the relationships for both monolayer-bilayer and bilayer-pseudotrimolecular layer transitions. The method provides a rapid estimation of these charge parameters and facilitates the proper identification of both smectites and vermiculites consistent with the AIPEA criteria for classification based on total layer charge. It is considered superior to conventional methods of differentiation based mainly on expansion and collapse behaviour.



Hide All
Badraoui, M., Bloom, P.R. & Rust, R.H. (1987) Occurrence of high-charge beidellite in a Vertic Haplaquoll of northwestern Minnesota. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. , 51, 813–818.
Bailey, S. W. (1980) Summary of recommendations of AIPEA nomenclature committee. Clays Clay Miner. , 28, 73–78.
Bystrom-Brusewitz, A.M. (1976) Studies on the Li test to distinguish between beidellite and montmorillonite. Proc. Inter. Clay Conf., Mexico City, 419428.
Chen, C.C., Turner, F.T. & Dixon, J.B. (1985) Layer charge characteristics and ammonium fixation in selected Texas Gulf Coast soils. Abstracts Int. Clay Conf. Denver, , 37.
Douglas, L.A. (1982) Smectites in acidic soils. Proc. Int. Clay Conf., Bologna & Pavia, 635640.
Greene-Kelly, R. (1953) The identification of montmorillonoids in clays. J. Soil Sci. , 4, 233–237.
Hausler, W. & Stanjek, H. (1988) A refined procedure for the determination of the layer charge with alkylammonium ions. Clay Miner. , 23, 333–337.
Lagaly, G. & Weiss, A. (1969) Determination of the layer charge in mica-type layer silicates. Proc. Int. Clay Conf., Tokyo, , 173187.
Lagaly, G., Fernandez Gonzalez, M. & Weiss, A. (1976) Problems in layer-charge determination of montmorillonites. Clay Miner. , 11, 173–187.
Lagaly, G. (1981) Characterization of clays by organic compounds. Clay Miner. , 16, 1–21.
Lagaly, G. (1982) Layer charge heterogeneity in vermiculites. Clays Clay Miner. , 30, 215–222.
Laird, D.A., Scott, A.D. & Fenton, T.E. (1987) Interpretation of alkylammonium characterization of soil clays. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. , 51, 1659–1663.
Maes, A., Stul, M.S. & Cremers, A. (1979) Layer charge-cation exchange capacity relationships in montmorillonite. Clays Clay Miner. , 27, 387–392.
Malla, P.B. & Douglas, L.A. (1987a) Identification of expanding layer silicates. Layer charge vs. expansion properties. Proc. Int. Clay Conf. Denver, 277283.
Malla, P.B. & Douglas, L.A. (1987b) Problems in identification of montmorillonite and beidellite. Clays Clay Miner. , 35, 232–236.
Malla, P.B. & Douglas, L.A. (1987c) Layer charge of 2:1 layer silicates: tetrahedral vs. octahedral. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. , 51, 1362–1366.
Mehra, O.P. & Jackson M .(1960) Iron oxide removal by a dithionite-citrate system buffered with sodium bicarbonate. Clays Clay Miner. , 7, 317–327.
Ruehlicke, G.U. & Kohler, E.E. (1981) A simplified procedure for determining layer charge by the n-alkyammonium method. Clay Miner. , 10, 305–307.
Ruehlicke, G. Niederbudde, E.A. (1985) Determination of layer-charge density of expandable 2:1 clay minerals in soils and loess sediment using the alkylammonium method. Clay Miner. , 20, 291–300.
Senkayi, A.L., Dixon, J.B., Hossner, L.R. & Kippenberger, L.A. (1985) Layer charge evaluation of expandable clays by an alkylammonium method. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. , 49, 1054–1060.
Stanjek, H. & Friedrich, R. (1986) The determination of layer charge by curve-fitting of Lorentz- and polarization-corrected X-ray diagrams. Clay Miner. , 21, 183190.
Stul, M.S. & Mortier, W.J. (1974) The heterogeneity of the charge density in montmorillonites. Clays Clay Miner. , 22, 391–395.
Suquet, H. & Pezerat, H. (1988) Comments on the classification of trioctahedral 2:1 phyllosilicates. Clay Miner. , 36, 184–186.
Weiss, A. (1963) Mica-type layer silicates with alkylammonium ions. Clays Clay Miner. , 10, 191–224.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

The rapid estimation of the layer charges of 2:1 expanding clays from a single alkylammonium ion expansion

  • A. C. Olis (a1), P. B. Malla (a2) and L. A. Douglas (a3)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.