Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Pedogenic alteration of illite in subtropical China

  • W. Han (a1), H. L. Hong (a1) (a2), K. Yin (a1), G. J. Churchman (a1) (a3), Z. H. Li (a4) and T. Chen (a5)...

Abstract

Pedogenic alteration of illite from red earth sediments in Jiujiang in subtropical China was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Illite, hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite (HIV), kaolinite and mixed-layer illite-HIV (I-HIV) are present in the soils. The characteristic reflections of the clay phases were 14 Å, 10–14 Å, 10 Å, and 7 Å, respectively. After Mg-glycerol saturations, the 14 Å peak of the samples did not expand, and after heating at 350°C and 550°C it shifted to 13.8 Å and 12 Å respectively, with no residual 14 Å reflection, suggesting the occurrence of hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite. The randomly interstratified I-HIV clays were characterized by a broad peak at 10–14 Å, which did not change its position after Mg-glycerol saturation, but collapsed to 10 Å after heating at 350°C and 550°C. HRTEM analysis showed different lattice fringes of 12 Å, 10 Å and 7 Å . Mixed-layer I-HIV, HIV-K and illite-kaolinite (I-K) were observed in the HRTEM images which represented the intermediate phases during illite alteration. The merging of two 10 Å illite layers into a 12 Å HIV layer, lateral transformation of one HIV layer into one kaolinite layer and alteration of one illite layer into two kaolinite layers illustrated the mechanisms of illite-to-HIV, HIV-to-kaolinite and illite-tokaolinite transformation, respectively. The proposed pedogenic alteration of illite and the weathering sequence of the clay minerals in Jiujiang is illite → I-HIV → HIV → HIV-K → kaolinite. In addition, illite may transform directly to kaolinite.

Copyright

Corresponding author

References

Hide All
Ahn, J. & Peacor, D.R. (1987) Kaolinization of biotite – TEM data and implications for an alteration mechanism. American Mineralogist, 72, 353356.
Altaner, S.P. & Ylagan, R.F. (1997) Comparison of structural models of mixed-layer illite/smectite and reaction mechanisms of smectite illitization. Clays and Clay Minerals, 45, 517533.
Amouric, M. & Olives, J. (1998) Transformation mechanisms and interstratification in conversion of smectite to kaolinite: an HRTEM study. Clays and Clay Minerals, 46, 521527.
Aoudjit, H., Elsass, F., Righi, D. & Robert, M. (1996) Mica weathering in acidic soils by analytical electron microscopy. Clay Minerals, 31, 319332.
April, R.H., Hluchy, M.M. & Newton, R.M. (1986) The nature of vermiculite in Adirondack soils and till. Clays and Clay Minerals, 34, 549556.
Aspandiar, M.F. & Eggleton, R.A. (2002a) Weathering of chlorite: I. Reactions and products in microsystems controlled by the primary mineral. Clays and Clay Minerals, 50, 685698.
Aspandiar, M.F. & Eggleton, R.A. (2002b) Weathering of chlorite: II. Reactions and products in microsystems controlled by solution avenues. Clays and Clay Minerals, 50, 699709.
Brown, G. (1953) The dioctahedral analogue of vermiculite. Clay Mineral Bulletin, 2, 6469.
Buurman, P., Meijer, E.L. & Van Wijck, J.H. (1988) Weathering of chlorite and vermiculite in ultramafic rocks of Cabo Ortegal, northwestern Spain. Clays and Clay Minerals, 36, 263269.
Chen, T. & Wang, H.J. (2007) Microstructure characteristics of illite from Chuanlinggou formation of Changcheng system in Jixian County, Tianjin City. Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, 50, 14521458.
Cho, H.D. & Mermut, A.R. (1992) Evidence for halloysite formation from weathering of ferruginous chlorite. Clays and Clay Minerals, 40, 608619.
Churchman, G.J. (1980) Clay minerals formed from micas and chlorites in some New Zealand soils. Clay Minerals, 15, 5976.
Cuadros, J. (2012) Clay crystal-chemical adaptability and transformation mechanisms. Clay Minerals, 47, 147164.
Dong, H.L., Peacor, D.R. & Murphy, S.F. (1998) TEM study of progressive alteration of igneous biotite to kaolinite throughout a weathered soil profile. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 62, 18811887.
Dudek, T., Cuadros, J. & Huertas, J. (2007) Structure of mixed-layer kaolinite-smectite and smectite-to-kaolinite transformation mechanism from synthesis experiments. American Mineralogist, 92, 179192.
Egli, M., Mirabella, A., Mancabelli, A. & Sartori, G. (2004) Weathering of soils in alpine areas as influenced by climate and parent material. Clays and Clay Minerals, 52, 287303.
Harris, W. & White, G.N. (2008) X-ray diffraction techniques for soil mineral identification. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 5. Mineralogical Methods (A.L. Ulery & R. Drees, editors). Soil Science Society of America Book Series, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Harris, W.G., Zelazny, L.W., Baker, J.C. & Martens, D.C. (1985) Biotite kaolinization in Virginia Piedmont soils: I. Extent, profile trends, and grain morphological effects. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 49, 12901297.
Harris, W.G., Morrone, A.A. & Coleman, S.E. (1992) Occluded mica in hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite grains from a highly-weathered soil. Clays and Clay Minerals, 40, 3239.
Hirai, H., Araki, S. & Kyuma, K. (1989) Clay mineralogical properties of brown forest soils in northern Kyoto with special reference to their pedogenetic process. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 35, 585596.
Hong, H., Churchman, G.J., Gu, Y., Yin, K. & Wang, C. (2012) Kaolinite-smectite mixed-layer clays in the Jiujiang red soils and their climate significance. Geoderma, 173-174, 7583.
Hong, H.L., Yu, N., Xiao, P., Zhu, Y.H., Zhang, K.X. & Xiang, S.Y. (2007) Authigenic palygorskite in Miocene sediments in Linxia basin, Gansu, northwestern China. Clay Minerals, 42, 4558.
Hong, H.L., Gu, Y.S., Li, R.B., Zhang, K.X. & Li, Z.H. (2010) Clay mineralogy and geochemistry and their palaeoclimatic interpretation of the Pleistocene deposits in the Xuancheng section, southern China. Journal of Quaternary Science, 25, 662674.
Hseung, Y. & Hsu, C.C. (1964) Frequency distribution of clay minerals in the soils of China. Acta Pedologica Sinica, 3, 2.
Hu, X., Wei, J., Du, Y., Xu, L., Wang, H., Zhang, G., Ye, W. & Zhu, L. (2010) Regional distribution of the Quaternary Red Clay with aeolian dust characteristics in subtropical China and its paleoclimatic implications. Geoderma, 159, 317334.
Ismail, F.T. (1970) Biotite weathering and clay formation in arid and humid regions, California. Soil Science, 109, 257261.
Karathanasis, A.D. (1988) Compositional and solubility relationships between aluminum-hydroxyinterlayered soil smectites and vermiculites. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 52, 15001508.
Karathanasis, A.D., Adams, F. & Hajek, B.F. (1983) Stability relationships in kaolinite, gibbsite, and Alhydroxyinterlayered vermiculite soil systems. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 47, 12471251.
Kittrick, J.A. (1969) Soil minerals in the Al2O3-SiO2- H2O system and a theory of their formation. Clays and Clay Minerals, 17, 157167.
Kittrick, J.A. (1980) Gibbsite and kaolinite solubilities by immiscible displacement of equilibrium solutions. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 44, 139142.
Lin, C., Hseu, Z. & Chen, Z. (2002) Clay mineralogy of Spodosols with high clay contents in the subalpine forests of Taiwan. Clays and Clay Minerals, 50, 726735.
Lindsay, W.L. (1979) Chemical Equilibria in Soils. John Wiley and Sons Ltd, USA.
Liu, J. & Chen, Z. (2004) Soil characteristics and clay mineralogy of two subalpine forest spodosols with clay accumulation in Taiwan. Soil Science, 169, 6680.
Murakami, T., Sato, T. & Inoue, A. (1999) HRTEM evidence for the process and mechanism of saponiteto- chlorite conversion through corrensite. American Mineralogist, 84, 10801087.
Rebertus, R.A., Weed, S.B. & Buol, S.W. (1986) Transformations of biotite to kaolinite during saprolite-soil weathering. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 50, 810819.
Ren, L. (1988) Intermediate structures of clay mineral during trasformation. Acta Sedimentologica Sinica, 6, 8087.(in Chinese with English abstract).
Righi, D. & Meunier, A. (1991) Characterization and genetic interpretation of clays in an acid brown soil (Dystrochrept) developed in a granitic saprolite. Clays and Clay Minerals, 39, 519530.
Robert, M., Hardy, M. & Elsass, F. (1991) Crystallochemistry, properties and organization of soil clays derived from major sedimentary rocks in France. Clay Minerals, 26, 409420.
Romero, R., Robert, M., Elsass, F. & Garcia, C. (1992) Evidence by transmission electron microscopy of weathering microsystems in soils developed from crystalline rocks. Clay Minerals, 27, 2133.
Rosenberg, P.E. & Kittrick, J.A. (1990) Muscovite dissolution at 25°C: implications for illite/smectitekaolinite stability relations. Clays and Clay Minerals, 38, 445447.
Ryan, P.C. & Huertas, F.J. (2009) The temporal evolution of pedogenic Fe-smectite to Fe-kaolin via interstratified kaolin-smectite in a moist tropical soil chronosequence. Geoderma, 151, 115.
Sand, L.B. (1956) On the genesis of residual kaolins. American Mineralogist, 41, 2840.
Singer, A. (1980) The paleoclimatic interpretation of clay minerals in soils and weathering profiles. Earth Science Reviews, 15, 303326.
Skiba, M., Szczerba, M., Skiba, S., Bish, D.L. & Grybos, M. (2011) The nature of interlayering in clays from a podzol (Spodosol) from the Tatra Mountains, Poland. Geoderma, 160, 425433.
Vanderaveroet, P., Bout-Roumazeilles, V., Fagel, N., Chamley, H. & Deconinck, J.F. (2000) Significance of random illite-vermiculite mixed layers in Pleistocene sediments of the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. Clay Minerals, 35, 679691.
Velde, B.B. & Meunier, A. (2008) Pp. 90–91 in: The Origin of Clay Minerals in Soils and Weathered Rocks. Springer, Germany.
Wada, K. & Kakuto, Y. (1983) Intergradient vermiculitekaolin mineral in a Korean Ultisol. Clays and Clay Minerals, 31, 183190.
Wada, K., Kakuto, Y., Nahon, D. & Noack, Y. (1983) A new intergradient vermiculite-kaolin mineral in 2: 1 to 1: 1 mineral transformation. Petrologie des Alterations et des Sols: 123–131.
Xiong, S., Sun, D. & Ding, Z. (2002) Aeolian origin of the red earth in southeast China. Journal of Quaternary Science, 17, 181191.
Yin, K., Hong, H., Li, R., Han, W., Wu, Y., Gao, W. & Jia, J. (2012) Mineralogy and genesis of mixed-layer clay minerals in the Jiujiang net-like red soil. Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis, 32, 27652769.(in Chinese with English abstract).
Yin, K., Hong, H., Churchman, G.J., Li, R., Li, Z., Wang, C. & Han, W. (2013) Hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite genesis in Jiujiang late-Pleistocene red earth sediments and significance to climate. Applied Clay Science, 74, 2027.
Zhang, M.K., Wilson, M.J. & He, Z.L. (2004) Mineralogy of red soils in southern China in relation to their development and charge characteristics. The Red Soils of China: Their Nature, Management and Utilization, 35–61.
Zhao, Q. & Yang, H. (1995) A preliminary study on red earth and changes of Quaternary environment in south China. Quaternary Sciences, 15, 107116.

Keywords

Pedogenic alteration of illite in subtropical China

  • W. Han (a1), H. L. Hong (a1) (a2), K. Yin (a1), G. J. Churchman (a1) (a3), Z. H. Li (a4) and T. Chen (a5)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed