Skip to main content Accessibility help

Genesis of smectite in siliciclastics and pyroclastics of the Eocene İslambeyli Formation in the Lalapaşa region, NW Thrace, Turkey

  • B. Ekіncі Şans (a1), F. Esenlі (a1), S. Kadir (a2) and W.C. Elliott (a3)


The Eocene İslambeyli Formation in the Lalapaşa region (NW Thrace, Turkey) consists predominantly of siliciclastic clayey clastics at the bottom and of claystone, tuff and tuffaceous claystone/ sandstone/limestone in the middle and uppermost parts of this formation. Some tuff-tuffaceous beds of the middle–upper parts of the formation are economically viable bentonite depoits. The İslambeyli Formation exhibits vertical variations in the mineralogy, elemental compositions, and smectite-forming processes. Smectite was formed by weathering and diagenetic processes in the fluvial-shore environments in the lower part and by diagenetic alteration in a shallow-marine environment in the middle–upper parts of the formation. Ca-smectite flakes were formed by two processes: direct precipitation; and by means of a dissolution-precipitation mechanism from feldspar and mica. Dissolution-precipitation was most prevalent in the siliciclastic lower part of the formation. The amounts of Al, Fe, Mg and Ca required to form smectite and accessory illite were supplied mainly from the alteration of feldspars, mica and glass shards. The origin of smectite can also be explained by the inferred solution compositions given the parent phases in this formation, and the devitrification of glass shards in pyroclastic-rich middle–upper parts of the formation. In the upper beds, the observed decrease of K and Fe in the smectite structure coincided with both the increase in the amount of smectite and the increase in solution pH suggesting that precipitation of smectite developed over a prolonged period and under arid conditions.


Corresponding author


Hide All
Abdioglu, E. & Arslan, M. (2005) Mineralogy, geochem¬istry and genesis of bentonites of the Ordu area, NE Turkey. Clay Minerals, 40, 131151.
Akbulut, A. (1996) Bentonite. MTA Publication, 32, Ankara, Turkey, 80 pp. (in Turkish).
Arslan, M., Abdioglu, E. & Kadir, S. (2010) Mineralogy, geochemistry and origin of bentonite in Upper Cretaceous pyroclastic units of the Tirebolu area, Giresun, Northeast Turkey. Clays and Clay Minerals, 58, 120141.
Bauluz, B., Peacor, D.R. & Elliott, W.C. (2000a) Coexisting altered glass, Fe-Ni oxides, and spherules at the K-T boundary, Stevns Klint, Denmark. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 182, 127136.
Bauluz, B., Peacor, D.R. & Lopez J.M.G. (2000b) Transmission electron microscopy study of illitization in pelites from the Iberian Range, Spain: Layer-by-layer replacement? Clays and Clay Minerals, 48, 374384.
Boynton, W.V. (1984) Geochemistry of the rare earth elements: meteorite studies. Pp. 63-114 in: Rare Earth Element Geochemistry (P. Henderson, editor). Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Braide, S.P. & Huff, W.D. (1986) Clay mineral variation in Tertiary sediments from the eastern Flank of the Niger Delta. Clay Minerals, 21, 211224.
Caballero, E., Jimenez de Cisneros, C., Huertas, F.J., Huertas, F., Pozzuoli, A. & Linares, J. (2005) Bentonites from Cabo de Gata, Almeria Spain; a mineralogical and geochemical overview. Clay Minerals, 40, 463480.
Caglayan, M.A. & Yurtsever, A. (1998) Burgaz-A3, Edirne-B2 and, B., Burgaz-A4 and Kırklareli-B4, Kırklareli-B5 and, B., Kırklareli-C6 Maps: 1/100,000 Scaled Geological Maps of Turkey. MTA Publication, 20-21-2223, Ankara (in Turkish).
Chamley, H. (1989) Clay Sedimentology. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 623 pp.
Christidis, G.E. (1998) Comparative study of the mobility of major and trace elements during alteration of an andesite and a rhyolite to bentonite, in the islands of Milos and Kimolos, Aegean, Greece. Clays and Clay Minerals, 46, 379399.
Christidis, G.E. (2001) Formation and growth of smectites in bentonites: A case study from Kimolos Island, Aegean, Greece. Clays and Clay Minerals, 49, 204—215.
Christidis, G. & Dunham, A.C. (1997) Compositional variations in smectites. Part II: Alteration of acidic precursors. A case study from Milos Island, Greece. Clay Minerals, 32, 253270.
Christidis, G.E. & Huff, W.D. (2009) Geological aspects and genesis of bentonites. Elements, 5, 9398.
Christidis, G. & Scott, P.W. (1997) The origin and control of colour of white bentonites from the Aegean islands of Milos and Kimolos, Greece. Mineralium Deposita, 32, 271279.
Christidis, G., Scott, P.W. & Marcopoulos T (1995) Origin of the bentonite deposits of Eastern Milos and Kimolos, Greece: geological, mineralogical and geochemical evidence. Clays and Clay Minerals, 43, 6377.
Chung, F.H. (1975) Quantitative interpretation of X-ray diffraction patterns of mixtures I.I. simultaneous determination of a set of reference intensities. Journal of Applied Crystallography, 8, 17—19.
Condie, K.C. (1993) Chemical composition and evolution of the Upper Continental Crust, Contrasting results from surface samples and shales. Chemical Geology, 104, 137.
Cox, K.G., Bell, J.D. & Pankhurst, R.J. (1979) The Interpretation of Igneous Rocks. George, Allen and Unwin, London, 450 pp.
Ddani, M., Meunier, A., Zahraoui, M., Beaufort, D., El Wartiti, M., Fontaine, C., Boukili, B. & El Mahi, B. (2005) Clay mineralogy and chemical composition of bentonites from the Gourougou volcanic massif, Northeast Morocco. Clays and Clay Minerals, 53, 250267.
De Baar, H.J.W., Bacon, M.P., Brewer, P.G. & Bruland, K.W. (1985) Rare earth elements in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 49, 19431959.
Ece, Ö.I., Ekinci, B., Schroeder, P.A., Crowe, D. & Esenli, F. (2013) Origin of the Düvertepe kaolin-alunite depos¬its in Simav Graben, Turkey: Timing and styles of hydrothermal mineralization. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 255, 57—78.
Elliott, W.C. (1993) Origin of the M. smectite at the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary at Stevns Klint, Denmark. Clays and Clay Minerals, 41, 442-452.
Elliott, W.C., Edenfield, A.M., Wampler, J.M. & Matisoff, G. (1999) Kinetics of the smectite to illite transform¬ation at Carro Negro, New Mexico. Clays and Clay Minerals, 47, 286296.
Esenli, F., Uz, B., Eren, R.H., Çoban, F., Manav, H., Yavuz, O. & Kumbasar, I. (1997) Alteration products of pyro-clastic rocks in Thrace, Turkey. Pp. 713—716 in: Proceedings of the 4th Biennial SGA Meeting-Mineral Deposits (H. Papunen, editor), Turku. Finland.
Esenli, F., Uz, B., SunerF., Esenli, V., Ece Ö.I. & Kumbasar, I. (2005) Zeolitization of tuffaceous rocks in the Kesan region, Thrace, Turkey. Geologia Croatica, 58, 151161.
Fedo, C.M., Nesbitt H.W & Young, G.M. (1995) Unraveling the effects of potassium metasomatism in sedimentary rocks and paleosols, with implications in weathering conditions and provenance. Geology, 23, 921924.
Grim, R.E. & Güven, N. (1978) Bentonites, Geology, Mineralogy, Properties and Uses. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 13137.
Güven, N. (1988) Smectites. Pp. 497559 in: Hydrous Phyllosilicates (S.W Bailey, editor). Reviews in Mineralogy, 19, Mineralogical Society of America, Washington, D.C.
Haskin, M.A. & Haskin, L.A. (1966) Rare earths in European shales: a redetermination. Science, 154, 507509.
Honty, M., Clauer, N. & Šucha V (2008) Rare-earth elemental systematics of mixed-layered illite-smectite from sedimentary and hydrothermal environments of the Western Carpathians (Slovakia). Chemical Geology, 249, 167190.
İçöz, S. & Tiirkmenoglu, A. (1997) The mineralogic, petrographic and geochemical investigation of Eocene-Oligocene clastics, Kesan, Thrace. Pp. 37-48 in: Proceedings of the National Clay Symposium (I. Ece, editor), Kütahya, Turkey (in Turkish).
Irvine, T.N. & Baragar W.R.A. (1971) A guide to the chemical classification of the common volcanic rocks. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 8, 523—548.
Juteau, T., Bingöl, F., Noack, Y & Whitechurch, H. (1978) 38. Preliminary results: Mineralogy and geochemistry of alteration products in leg 45 basement samples. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, XLV, 613645. Washington, D.C.
Kadir, S. (2007) Mineralogy, geochemistry and genesis of smectite in Pliocene volcaniclastic rocks of the Doganbey Formation, Beysehir basin, Konya, Turkey. Clays and Clay Minerals, 55, 402422.
Kadir, S., Önen-Hall, P., Aydın, S.N., Yakicier, C., Akarsu, N. & Tuncer, M. (2008) Environmental effect and genetic influence: a regional cancer predisposition survey in the Zonguldak region of Northwest Turkey. Environmental Geology, 54, 391—409.
Kadir, S., Külah, T., Eren, M. Onalgil, N. & Gürel, A. (2014) Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics and genesis of the Güzelyurt alunite-bearing kaolinite deposit within the Late Miocene Gördeles ignimbrite, central Anatolia, Turkey. Clays and Clay Minerals, 62, 477499.
Kadir, S., Aydogan, M.S., Elitok Ö. & Helvacı C. (2015) Composition and genesis of the nickel-chrome-bearing nontronite and montmorillonite in lateritized ultramafic rocks in the Muratdagi region (Usak, western Anatolia), Turkey. Clays and Clay Minerals, 63, 163184.
Kasar, S. (1987) Geology of the Edirne-Kırklareli-Saray (North Thrace). Proceedings of the 7th Petroleum Congress of Turkey, Ankara, Pp. 281—291 (in Turkish).
Keskin, C. (1966) Pınarhisar resif karmagigi mikrofasiyes incelemesi. İstanbul University Review B-31, 3—4, 109146.(in Turkish).
Külah, T., Kadir, S., Gürel, A., Eren, M. & Önalgil, N. (2014) Mineralogy, geochemistry and genesis of mudstones in the Upper Miocene Mustafapasa member of the Ürgüp Formation in the Cappadocia region, central Anatolia, Turkey. Clays and Clay Minerals, 62, 267285.
Less, G., Özcan, E. & Okay, A.I. (2011) Stratigraphy and larger foraminifera of the Middle Eocene to Lower Oligocene shallow-marine units in the northern and eastern parts of the Thrace Basin, NW Turkey. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 20, 793845.
Maravelis, A. & Zelilidis, A. (2010) Petrography and geochemistry of the late Eocene-early Oligocene submarine funs and shelf deposits on Lemnos Island, NE Greece. Implications for provenance and tectonic setting. Geological Journal, 45, 412—433.
Maynard, J.B., Valloni, R. & Yu, H. (1982) Composition of modern deep sea sands from arc-related basins (J.K. Leggett, editor). Pp. 551-561 in: Trench-Forearc Geology: Sedimentation and Tectonics on Modern and Ancient Active Plate Margins Special Publications, 10, Geological Society, London.
McLennan, S.M., Hemming, S., McDaniel D.K & Hanson, G.N. (1993) Geochemical approaches to sedimentation, provenance and tectonics. Geological Society of America Special Papers, 284, 21—40.
McLennan, S.M. (2001) Relationships between the trace element composition of sedimentary rocks and upper continental crust. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 2, 1021–0000.
Meunier, A. (2005) Clays. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 472 pp.
Moore, D.M. & Reynolds, R.C. Jr. (1997) X-ray Diffraction and the Identification and Analysis of Clay Minerals. Oxford University Press, New York, 378 pp.
Münch, P., Duplay, J. & Cocheme, J. (1996) Alteration of silicic vitric tuffs interbedded in volcanoclastic deposits of the Southern Basin and Range Province, Mexico. Evidences for Hydrothermal Reactions. Clays and Clay Minerals, 44, 4967.
Natal'in, B.A., Sunal, G., Satır, M. & Toraman, E. (2012) Tectonics of the Stradja Massif, NW Turkey: History of a long-lived arc at the northern margin of Palaeo-Tethys. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 21, 755798.
Nesbitt, H.W., Mackovics, G. & Price, R.C. (1980) Chemical processes affecting alkalis and alkaline Earth during continental weathering. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 44, 1659—1666.
Nesbitt, H.W. & Young, G.M. (1982) Early Proterozoic climates and plate motion inferred from major element chemistry of lutites. Nature, 299, 715717.
Nesbitt, H.W. & Young, G.M. (1984) Prediction of some weathering trend of plutonic and volcanic rocks based on thermodynamic and kinetic consideration. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 48, 1523—1534.
Nesbitt, H.W. & Young, G.M. (1989) Formation and diagenesis of weathering profiles. Journal of Geology, 97, 129147.
Nesbitt, H.W., Young, G.M., McLennan, S.M. & Keyas, R.R. (1996) Effects of chemical weathering and sorting on the petrogenesis of siliciclastic sediments with impli¬cation for provenance studies. Journal of Geology, 104, 525542.
Okay, A.I. & Tüysüz, O. (1999) Tethyan sutures of northern Turkey. Pp. 475—515 in: The Mediterranean Basins: Tertiary Extension within the Alpine Orogen (B. Durand, L. Jolivet, F. Horvath & M. Serane, editors). Special Publications, 156, Geological Society, London.
Osborn, S.G., Duffield, L.T., Elliott, W.C., Wampler, J.M., Elmore, R.D. & Engel, M.H. (2014) The timing of diagenesis and thermal maturation of the Cretaceous Marias River shale, disturbed belt, Montana. Clays and Clay Minerals, 62, 112125.
Peccerillo, A. & Taylor, S.R. (1976) Geochemistry of Eocene calc-alkaline volcanic rocks from the Kastamonu area, northern Turkey. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 58, 6381.
Reynolds, R.C. Jr. (1980) Interstratified clay minerals. Pp. 229303 in: Crystal Structures of Clay Minerals and their X-ray Identification (G.W. Brindley & G. Brown, editors). Mineralogical Society, London.
Roser, B.P. & Korsch, R.J. (1986) Determination of tectonic setting of sandstone—mudstone suites using SiO2 content and K2O/Na2O ratio. Journal of Geology, 94, 635650.
Roser, B.P. & Korsch, R.J. (1988) Provenance signatures of sandstone-mudstone suites determined using discriminant function analysis of major-element data. Chemical Geology, 67, 119139.
Setti, M., Marinoni, L. & Lopez-Galindo, A. (2004) Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics (major, minor, trace elements and, R.E. of detrital and authigenic clay minerals in a Cenozoic sequence from Ross Sea, Antarctica. Clay Minerals, 39, 405421.
Shand, S.J. (1943) Eruptive Rocks; Their Genesis,Composition, Classification, and Their Relation toOre-Deposits with a Chapter on Meteorite. Hafner Publishing Co., New York, 444 pp.
Siyako, M. (2006) The Lithostratigraphic Units in ThraceRegion. MTA Publication, Stratigraphy Committee, Serie-2, Ankara, 70 pp. (in Turkish).
Summa, L.L. & Verosub, K.L. (1992) Trace element mobility during early diagenesis of volcanic ash: applications to stratigraphic correlation. QuaternaryInternational, 13-14, 149157.
Surdam, R.C., Boese, S.W. & Grossey, L.J. (1984) The chemistry of secondary porosity. Pp. 127-150 in: Clastic Diagenesis (D.A. McDonald & R.C. Surdam, editors). American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Memoir 37, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA.
§engor, A.M.C. & Yılmaz, Y. (1981) Tethyan evolution of Turkey: A plate tectonic approach. Tectonophysics, 75, 181241.
State Planning Organization (2001) Eighth Five-Year Development Plan (2001-2005). Report of Sub- Group-IV, Working Group on Minerals, T.R. PrimeMinistry, State Planning Organization (SPO)Publications, Ankara, Turkey, 64 pp.
Taylor, S.R. & McLennan, S.M. (1985) The ContinentalCrust: its Composition and Evolution. Blackwell Scientific Publication, Carlton, 312 pp.
Taylor, S.R. & McLennan, S.M. (1995) The geochemical evolution of the continental crust. Reviews inGeophysics, 33, 241265.
Tetiker, S., Yalçın H. & BozkayaÖ. (2009) Diagenesis and low grade metamorphism of Karakaya Complex units in the N. Anatolia. Yerbilimleri, 30, 193212.(in Turkish).
Tributh, H. & Lagaly G. (1986) Aufbereitung und Identifizierung von Boden- und Lagerstättentonen. GIT Fachzeitschrift für das Laboratorium,Kolloidshemie, 30, 524529.
Turgut, S., Siyako, M. & Dilki, A. (1983) The geology of Thrace Basin and hydrocarbon resources. Geological Bulletin of Turkey, 4, 3546.(in Turkish).
Umut, M., Kurt, Z. & İmik, M. (1983) Geology of the Tekirdag-Silivri (Istanbul)-Pınarhisar (Kırklareli) area and surroundings. MTA Report No. 7349, Ankara (unpublished).
Umut, M., İmik, M., Kurt, Z., Özcan, I., Ate§ M., Karabryikoglu, M. & Saraç G. (1984) Geology of the Edirne-Kırklareli-Lüleburgaz (Kırklareli)- Uzunköprü (Edirne) area and surroundings. MTA Report No. 7604, Ankara (unpublished).
Vitali, F., Blanc, G., Larqué P., Duplay, J. & Morvan, G. (1999) Thermal diagenesis of clay minerals within volcanogenic material from the Tonga convergent margin. Marine Geology, 157, 105125.
Weaver, C.E. (1989) Clays, Muds, and Shales. Developments in Sedimentology, 44, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 819 pp.
Yalçın, H. & Gümüser, G. (2000) Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of Late Cretaceous ben-tonite deposits of the Kelkit Valley Region, northern Turkey. Clay Minerals, 35, 807825.
Yanık, G., Esenli, F., Uz, V., Esenli, V., Uz, B. & Külah, T. (2010) Ceramic properties of kaolinized tuffaceous rocks in Kesan region, Thrace, NW Turkey. Applied Clay Science, 48, 499505.
Yeniyol, M. (1987) The geology, mineralogy and genesis of the Enez (Edirne) bentonite. Pp. 123-137 in: Proceedings Book 3. National Clay Symposium (A. Tiirkmenoglu & O. Akıman, editors). Ankara.
Yılmaz, Y. Tiiysiiz, O., Yigitbag, E., Gene §.C. & §engor A.M.C. (1997) Geology and tectonic evolution of the Pontides. Pp. 183-226 in: Regional and Petroleum Geology of the Black Sea and Surrounding Region (A.G. Robinson, editor). AAPG Memoir, 68, Ankara.
Yılmaz, Y & Polat, A. (1998) Geology and evolution of the Thrace volcanism, Turkey. Acta Vulcanologica, 10, 293303.
Ziegler, K (2006) Clay minerals of the Permian Rotliegend Group in the North Sea and adjacent areas. Clay Minerals, 41, 355393.
Zielinski, R.A. (1982) The mobility of uranium of rhyolite ash to montmorillonite: a case study in the Troublesome Formation, Colorado, U.S.A. Chemical Geology, 35, 185204.


Genesis of smectite in siliciclastics and pyroclastics of the Eocene İslambeyli Formation in the Lalapaşa region, NW Thrace, Turkey

  • B. Ekіncі Şans (a1), F. Esenlі (a1), S. Kadir (a2) and W.C. Elliott (a3)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed