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Clay minerals formed from micas and chlorites in some New Zealand soils

  • G. J. Churchman (a1)

Abstract

Clay mineralogical differences between eight soils in South Island, New Zealand, are related to differences in climate, vegetation, and formation time. Alteration of chlorite follows the sequence chlorite→interlayered hydrousmica→chlorite-swelling chlorite→chlorite-vermiculite, with increased weathering leading to the destruction of the chloritic layers. Mica (muscovite) follows two alteration sequences depending on the overlying vegetation. Under tussock grassland the sequence is mica→mica-vermiculite→mica-beidellite→beidellite. This sequence is also followed under beech forest, together with the sequence of mica→vermiculite→beidellite, with pedogenic chlorite forming when the pH is > 4·5. All but one of the interstratified products (the interlayered hydrous mica) appear to be based on a 1:1 regular interlayering of the two components.

Résumé

Des différences minéralogiques sur l'argile entre huit sols de South Island, en Nouvelle-Zélande, sont reliées à des différences de climat, de végétation et d'époque de formation. L'altération de la chlorite suit la séquence chlorite→mica hydraté intermédiaire→chlorite—chlorite ayant subi un gonflement→chlorite—vermiculite, une action plus forte des intempéries conduisant á la destruction des couches contenant la chlorite. Le mica (muscovite) suit deux séquences d'altération différentes selon la végétion au-dessus de lui. Sous les prairies à herbe en touffes et les forêts de hêtres, la séquence est mica→mica-vermiculite→mica-beidellite→beidellite. Sous les forêts de hêtres seuls la séquence est mica→vermiculite→beidellite, avec la chlorite de formation du sol apparaissant lorsque le pH est supérieur à 4·5. Tous ces produits d'altération sauf un (le mica hydraté intermédiaire) apparaissent comme étant formés de couches alternées régulières des deux composants dans le rapport 1/1.

Kurzreferat

Die tonmineralogischen Unterschiede zwischen acht Böden von South Island, Neuseeland werden in Beziehung gebracht zu den Unterschieden im Klima, der Vegetation und der Bildungszeit. Die Chloritumwandlung geht nach folgender Reihenfolge: Chlorit→wechselgelagerter Hydroglimmer→Chlorit mit quellfähigem Chlorit→Chlorit-Vermikulit. Zunehmende Verwitterung führt zur Zerstörung der chloritartigen Schichten. Glimmer (Muskovit) folgt einer Umwandlung nach zwei Folgen, die in Zusammenhang stehen mit der darüber befindlichen Vegetation. Unter buschbewachsenen Wiesen und Buchenwald ist die Reihenfolge: Glimmer→Glimmer-Vermikulit→Glimmer-Beidellit→Beidellit. Unter Buchenwald ist die Reihenfolge Glimmer→Vermikulit→Beidellit mit pedogenem Chlorit bei einem {scph)-Wert > 4·5. Mit Ausnahme von einem dieser Umwandlungsprodukte scheint der wechsellagige Hydroglimmer eine regelmäßige 1 : 1 Wechsellagerung von den beiden Komponenten zu sein.

Resumen

Las diferencias mineralógicas de la arcilla entre distintos suelos de South Island (Nueva Zelandia) están relacionadas con diferencias de clima, vegetación, y tiempo de formación. La alteración de la clorita sigue la secuencia clorita→mica hidratada intercalada→clorita—clorita turgente→clorita—vermiculita, conduciendo la creciente meteorización a la destrucción de las capas cloríticas, la mica (muscovita) sigue dos secuencias de alteración, dependiendo de la vegetación superyacente. Bajo prado y hayal la secuencia es mica→mica-vermiculita mica-beidellita→beidellita. Bajo hayal sólo, la secuencia es mica→vermiculita→beidellita, formándose clorita pedogénica cuando el pH es > 4·5. Todos menos uno de estos productos de alteración (la mica hidratada intercalada) parecen basarse en una interestratificación 1 : 1 de los dos componentes.

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References

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Clay minerals formed from micas and chlorites in some New Zealand soils

  • G. J. Churchman (a1)

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