Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Clay- and zeolite-bearing Triassic sediments at Kaka Point, New Zealand: evidence of microbially influenced mineral formation from earliest diagenesis into the lowest grade of metamorphism

  • C. V. Jeans (a1), A. E. Fallick (a2), M. J. Fisher (a3), R. J. Merriman (a4), R. M. Corfield (a5) and B. Manighetti (a1)...

Abstract

The distribution, mineralogy, petrology and bulk and stable isotope chemistry of altered volcanic ash beds in the marine sediments of Mid-Triassic age (Etalian) at Kaka Point, New Zealand, are described and related to lithofacies and the geological processes controlling their development.

Three varieties of altered ash occur in the Kaka Point sediments — porcellanite, claystone (bentonite) and albite-rich. Porcellanites are quartz-rich and may contain analcime and heulandite: they are restricted mainly to the on-shore facies. Claystones are rich in smectitic clay minerals and occur in both the on-shore and off-shore facies. They often contain diagenetic nodules of analcime, quartz, apatite and carbonates. The authigenic carbonates of the on-shore facies are variable in composition (sideritic, rhodochrositic, calcitic), whereas in the off-shore facies they consist only of calcite. The albite-rich lithology is very rare and is known only from the off-shore facies.

The development of the porcellanite and albite-rich lithologies was restricted to slowly deposited, relatively coarse-grained ash sediments in which extensive interchange took place between the sediment's pore-waters and ambient seawater, resulting in enhanced microbial activity and high pH throughout the pore-waters of the suboxic zone beneath the water-sediment interface. The high pH increased the rate of volcanic ash hydrolysis and provided the conditions necessary for the precipitation of zeolite, feldspar and quartz. The development of smectitic claystones was associated with more rapid deposition and limited interchange between the pore-waters of the parent ash and ambient seawater. The pore-water alkalinity was generally lower and enhanced microbial activity and high pHs were restricted to patches of sediment at which quartz, analcime, apatite and carbonates formed diagenetic nodules. Modelling of the stable isotopes of the smectitic clays (δ18O, δD) and diagenetic carbonates (δ18O, δ13C) suggest that: (1) ash argillization in the on-shore facies took place in brackish water (∼25% meteoric water) at an average temperature of ∼50°C and in the off-shore facies in marine pore-waters (∼10% meteoric waters) at ∼40°C and (2) diagenetic carbonate precipitation in the near-shore facies took place at ∼30°C and in the off-shore facies at 60–80°C.

The pattern of ash alteration in the marine Triassic sediments at Kaka Point is considered to represent an early stage in the development of the zeolite pattern associated with the classic area of zeolite facies metamorphism in the Taringatura and Hokonui Hills.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Bigeleisen, J., Perlman, M.L. & Prosser, H.C. (1952) Conversion of hydrogenic materials to hydrogen for isotopic analysis. Anal. Chem. 24, 1356–1357.
Boles, J.R. (1974) Structure, stratigraphy and petrology of mainly Triassic rocks, Hokonui Hills, Southland, New Zealand. N.Z. J. Geol. Geophys. 17, 324334.
Boles, J.R. & Coombs, D.S. (1975) Mixed reactions in zeolitic Triassic tuff, Hokonui Hills, New Zealand. Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer. 86, 163173.
Boles, J.R. & Coombs, D.S. (1977) Zeolite facies alteration of sandstones in the Southland Syncline, New Zealand. Am. J. Sci. 277, 9821012.
Borthwick, J. & Harmon, R.S. (1982) A note regarding ClF3 as an alternative to BrF5 for oxygen isotope analysis. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 46, 16651668.
Campbell, J.D. & Coombs, D.S. (1966) Murihiku Supergroup (Triassic-Jurassic) of Southland and South Otago. N.Z J. Geol. Geophys. 9, 393398.
Capuano, R.M. (1992) The temperature dependence of hydrogen isotope fractionation between clay minerals and water: evidence from a geopressured system. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 56, 2547–2554.
Clayton, C.J. (1986) The chemical environment of flint formation in Upper Cretaceous chalks. Pp. 43–54 in: The Scientific Study of Flint and Chert, (de C. Siveking, G. & Hart, M.B., editors). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Clayton, R.N. & Mayeda, T.K. (1963) The use of bromine pentafluoride in the extraction of oxygen from oxides and silicates for isotopic analysis. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 27, 4352.
Coleman, M.L. (1985) Geochemistry of diagenetic nonsilicate minerals: kinetic considerations. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A31g, 39-56.
Colman, S.M. & Dethier, D.P. (1986) Rates of Chemical Weathering of Rocks and Minerals. Academic Press, New York & London.
Coombs, D.S. (1954) The nature and alteration of some Triassic sediments from Southland, New Zealand. Trans. R. Soc. N.Z. 82, 65109.
Coombs, D.S. (1965) Sedimentary analcime rocks and sodium-rich gneisses. Mineral. Mag. 34, 144–158.
Coombs, D.S. & Cox, S.C. (1991) Low- and very low grade metamorphism in southern New Zealand and its geological setting. Geol. Soc. N. Z. M&c. Publ. 58. 79 pp.
Corfield, R.M. & Cartlidge, J.E. (1992) Oceanographic and climatic implications of the Palaeocene carbon isotope maximum. Terra Nova, 4, 443–455.
Cornford, C. (1990) Source rocks and hydrocarbons of the North Sea. Pp. 294–361 in: Introduction to the Petroleum Geology of the North Sea, 3rd ed., (Glennie, K.W., editor), Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
Correns, C.W. (1961) The experimental chemical weathering of silicates. Clay Miner. Bull. 4, 249265.
Doremus, R.H. (1975) Interdiffusion of hydrogen and alkali ions in a glass surface. J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 19, 137144.
Drever, J.I. (1985) The Chemistry of Weathering. NATO ASI Series, Reidel, Dordrecht.
Duchaufor, P., Bonneau, M. & Souchier, B. (1977) Pidologie 1. Pedogenèse et Classification. Masson, Paris.
Fisher, M.J. (1980) Kerogen distribution and depositional environments in the Middle Jurassic of Yorkshire, U.K. Proc. lVth Int. Palynological Confi, Lucknow 2, 574-580.
Hemley, J.J. (1962) Alteration studies in the system Na2o-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O and K2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O. Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec. Papers, 68, 322.
Hemley, J.J. & Janes, W.R. (1964) Chemical aspects of hydrothermal alteration with emphasis on hydrogen metasomatism. Econ. Geol. 59, 538–569.
Hogg, A.J.C., Pearson, M.J. & Fallick, A.E. (1993) Pretreatment of Fithian illite for oxygen isotope analysis. Clay Miner. 28, 149152.
Höller, H. & Wirsching, U. (1978) Experiments on the formation of zeolites by hydrothermal alteration of volcanic glasses. Pp. 329–336 in: Natural Zeolites, (Sand, L.B. & Mumpton, F.A., editors), Pergamon Press, Oxford.
Houser, C.A., Herman, J.S., Tsong, I.S.T., White, W.B. & Landford, W.A. (1980) Sodium-hydrogen interdiffusion in sodium silicate glasses. J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 41, 8998.
IAEA (1992) Statistical treatment of data on environmental isotopes in precipitation. Technical Report Series No. 331, IAEA, Vienna.
Jeans, C.V. (1980) Early submarine lithification in the Red Chalk and Lower Chalk of Eastern England: a bacterial control mechanism and its implications. Proc. Yorks. Geol. Soc. 43, 81157.
Jeans, C.V., Merriman, R.J. & Mitchell, J.G. (1977) Origin of Middle Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous fuller's earths in England. Clay Miner. 12, 11–44.
Kisch, H.J. (1987) Correlation between indicators of very low-grade metamorphism. Pp. 227–304 in: Low Temperature Metamorphism, (Frey, M., editor), Blackie, Glasgow.
Kisch, H.J. (1991) Illite crystallinity: recommendations on sample preparation X-ray diffraction settings and inter-laboratory samples. J. Met. Geol. 9, 665–670.
Lanford, W.A., Davis, K., Lamarche, P., Laursen, T. & Groleau, R. (1979) Hydration of soda-lime glass. J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 33, 249266.
Le Maitre, R.W. (Ed.) (1989) A Classification of Igneous Rocks and Glossary of Terms. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
Longstaffe, F.J. (1989) Stable isotopes as tracers in clastic diagenesis. Pp. 201–277 in: A Short Course in Burial Diagenesis, 15 (Hutcheon, I.E., editor). Min. Assoc. Canada Short Course Series.
Lovering, T.G. & Patten, L.E. (1962) The effect of CO2 at low temperature and pressure on solutions supersaturated with silica in the presence of limestone and dolomite. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 26, 787–796.
Mariner, R.H. & Surdam, R.C. (1970) Alkalinity and formation of zeolites in saline alkaline lakes. Science, 170, 977980.
McCrea, J.M. (1950) On the isotopic chemistry of carbonates and a paleotemperature scale. J. Chem. Phys. 18, 849857.
Mortimer, N. (1993) Geology of the Otago Schist and Adjacent Rocks, IGNS Geological Map 7. Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Ltd., Lower Hutt, New Zealand.
Okamoto, G., Okura, T. & Goto, K. (1957) Properties of silica in water. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 12, 123132.
Roberts, B., Merriman, R.J. & Pratt, W. (1991) The influence of strain, lithology and stratigraphical depth of white mica (illite) crystallinity in mudrocks from the vicinity of the Corris Slate Belt, Wales: implications for the timing of metamorphism in the Welsh Basin. Geol. Mag. 128, 633645.
Rosenbaum, J. & Sheppard, S.M.F. (1986) An isotopic study of siderites, dolomites and ankerites at high temperature. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 50, 11471150.
Shackleton, N.J. & Kennett, J.P. (1975) Paleotemperature history of the Cenozoic and the initiation of Antarctic glaciation: oxygen and carbon analyses in DSDP sites 277, 279, 281. Pp. 653-659 in: Initial Report DSDP 24, (Kennett, J.P. & Howtz, R.E., editors). Washington.
Smets, B.M. & Lommen, T.P.A. (1982) The leaching of sodium aluminosilicate glasses studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Phys. Chem. Glasses, 23, 8387.
Smith, A.G., Smith, D.G. & Funnell, B.M. (1994) Atlas of Mesozoic and Cenozoic Coastlines. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Suggate, R.P., Stevens, G.R. & Te Punga (editors) (1978) The Geology of New Zealand, 2 vols. Government Printers, Wellington.
Surdam, R.C. & Sheppard, R.A. (1978) Zeolites in saline, alkaline-lake deposits. Pp. 145-174 in: Natural Zeolites, (Sand, L.B. & Mumpton, F.A., editors). Pergamon Press, Oxford.
Tanner, C.B. & Jackson, M.L. (1947) Nomographs of sedimentation times for soil particles under gravity or centrifugal acceleration. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. 12, 6065.
Taylor, H.P. (1974) The application of oxygen and hydrogen isotope studies to problems of hydrother- mal alteration and ore deposition. Econ. Geol. 69, 843–883.

Clay- and zeolite-bearing Triassic sediments at Kaka Point, New Zealand: evidence of microbially influenced mineral formation from earliest diagenesis into the lowest grade of metamorphism

  • C. V. Jeans (a1), A. E. Fallick (a2), M. J. Fisher (a3), R. J. Merriman (a4), R. M. Corfield (a5) and B. Manighetti (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed