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L'‘halloysite’ blanche riche en fer de vate (vanuatu)—hypothese d'un edifice interstratifie halloysite-hisingerit

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 July 2018

P. Quantin
Affiliation:
ORSTOM, Services Scientifiques Centraux, 70-74 route d'Aulnay, F-93140 Bondy, France
A. J. Herbillon
Affiliation:
Section de Physico-chimie Minérale du Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale et Université Catholique de Louvain, Place Croix du Sud 1, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgique
C. Janot
Affiliation:
Institut Max von Laue-Paul Langevin, Grenoble, France
G. Siefferman
Affiliation:
ORSTOM, Services Scientifiques Centraux, 70-74 route d'Aulnay, F-93140 Bondy, France

Resume

L'argile blanche en provenance du sol ferrallitique dérivé de matériaux pyroclastiques de Vaté (Vanuatu) possède un rapport moléculaire SiO2/(Al2O3 + Fe2O3) proche de 2, est riche en fer (∼7% Fe2O3) et se présente sous forme de fines lamelles irrégulières et parfois froissées. Sous l'effet de tout traitement de déshydratation, l'espacement basal de cette argile passe progressivement de 10 Å vers 7 Å. Toutes ces caractéristiques permettraient son identification comme halloysite (10 Å) ferrifère hydratée. Cependant, les spectres de diffraction des rayons X de cette argile déshydratée puis déshydroxylée ne correspondent pas à ceux que l'on obtient pour une halloysite ‘normale’. Ils révèlent plutôt la présence d'un édifice interstratifié 1:1/2:1 où le minéral 2:1, présent à raison de 20% environ, est dioctaédrique. En outre, la CEC de ce matériau (∼44 mEq/100 g à pH 4) est anormalement élevée pour un minéral 1:1. Par spectroscopie Mössbauer, on établit que la quasi-totalité du fer présent dans cet échantillon doit être localisée en position octaédrique au sein d'un phyllosilicate. Comme ce fer est ferrique, son inclusion dans la couche octaédrique d'un minéral 1:1 ne pourrait justifier l'importante charge négative permanente que porte cette argile. En réalité, toutes les propriétés reconnues pour ce matériau justifient son identification comme minéral interstratififé de 80% environ d'halloysite et de 20% de smectite ferrifère. Certaines particularités des spectres d'infrarouge, notamment l'absence des bandes à 3560 et 820 cm−1 caractéristiques des vibrations d'élongation et de déformation des hydroxyles de la nontronite, suggèrent que la smectite ferrifère inclue dans l'édifice interstratifié pourrait être une hisingérite dioctaédrique.

Abstract

Abstract

The white clay mineral described here was found in the bottom horizon of a ferrallitic soil derived from pyroclastic rocks in Forari, New Hebrides. It showed an SiO2/(Al2O3 + Fe2O3) molecular ratio close to two, was iron-rich (∼7% Fe2O3) and formed thin, irregular and sometimes crumpled lamellae. On drying, the basal spacing shifts progressively from 10 to 7 Å. The above properties would thus identify it as a hydrated (10 Å) ‘iron-rich’ or ‘ferrihalloysite’. However, the X-ray diffraction patterns of the clay subjected to either severe dehydration or dehydroxylation treatments did not correspond exactly to those for ‘normal’ halloysites. Rather, they revealed the presence of an interstratified mineral, where the 2:1 component was dioctahedral and accounted for ∼20% of the total sample. Further the CEC of this clay was abnormally high (∼44 mEq/100 g at pH 4) for a 1:1 phyllosilicate. Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that most of the iron present was localized in the octahedral sites of a clay mineral framework and that this iron was exclusively ferric. Its assignment, therefore, to the octahedral sheet of a 1 : 1 clay mineral did not account for the important negative charge shown by this material. All the properties listed indicate that it is a mixed-layer clay composed of halloysite (∼80%) and iron-rich smectite (∼20%) components. Some peculiarities observed in the IR spectra, namely the absence of the 3560 and 820 cm−1 OH stretching and bending vibration bands characteristic of a nontronite, suggest that the iron-rich smectite present in the interstratified clay could be a dioctahedral hisingerite.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland 1984

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L'‘halloysite’ blanche riche en fer de vate (vanuatu)—hypothese d'un edifice interstratifie halloysite-hisingerit
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