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Characterization of clays by organic compounds

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 July 2018

Abstract

Many problems—from soil research to ceramics—require a reliable characterization of the clay minerals involved. This can be done using four clay-organic reactions: (i) staining tests and dye adsorption; (ii) glycerol and glycol adsorption; (iii) intercalation; (iv) alkylammonium ion exchange. Dye adsorption (staining tests) and glycerol adsorption allow a preliminary identification of the clay mineral groups. Intercalation reactions indicate minute differences between kaolins which cannot be detected by XRD and DTA. Alkylammonium ion exchange provides the best method for characterizing smectites and is sensitive to changes in the layer charge.

Résumé

Résumé

De nombreux problèmes—de la science des sols à, celle des céramiques—nécessistent une caractérisation correcte des minéraux argileux concernés. Pour cela on peut utiliser 4 réactions: (i) les tests de coloration et l'adsorption de colorants; (ii) l'adsorption de glycol et de glycérol; (iii) l'intercalation; (iv) l'échange avec des ions alkylammonium. L'adsorption de colorants (test de coloration) et l'adsorption de glycérol, permettent une identification préliminaire du groupe auquel appartient le minéral argileux. Les réactions d'intercalation indiquent de petites différences entre les kaolins, impossibles à détecter par DRX et ATD. L'échange avec les ions alkylammonium fournit la meilleure méthode pour caractériser les smectites; elle est sensible aux variations de la charge des feuillets.

Kurzreferat

Kurzreferat

Eine zuverlässige Charakterisierung der Tonminerale wird bei vielen Untersuchungen gefordert, die von Untersuchungen von Bodentonen bis zur Verwendbarkeit der Tonminerale in der keramischen Industrie reichen. Vier Reaktionen mit organischen Verbindungen können dazu herangezogen werden: (i) Adsorption von Farbstoffen; (ii) Adsorption von Glyzerin und Glycol; (iii) Einlagerung organischer Verbindungen; (iv) Eintausch von Alkylammoniumionen. Die Adsorption von Farbstoffen und Glycol (Glycerin) erlaubt eine grobe Identifizierung der einzelnen Gruppen der Tonminerale. Dagegen können durch Einlagerungsreaktionen geringe Differenzen zwischen Kaolinen erkannt werden, die sich röntgenographisch und thermoanalytisch nicht bemerkbar machen. Der Eintausch von Alkylammoniumionen bietet die beste Möglichkeit Smectite zu charakterisieren und auch geringe Veränderungen in der Schichtladung zu erkennen.

Resumen

Resumen

La resolución de diversos problemas que van desde el estudio del suelo hasta los estudios cerámicos, requieren una caracterización precisa de los minerales de la arcilla contenidos en la muestra. Esta caracterización puede hacerse utilizando cuatro tipos de reacciones de compuestos orgánicos con las archillas, a saber: (i) tests de color y adsorción de colorantes; (ii) adsorción de glicerol y glicol; (iii) intercalación; (iv) cambio iónico con cationes alquilamonio. Le adsorción de colorantes (tests de color) y la adsorción de glicerol permiten una identificación previa del grupo al que pertenecen los minerales. Las reacciones de intercalación ponen de relieve pequeñas diferencias entre caolines que no pueden ser detectados por DRX y ATD. El cambio iónico con iones alquilamonio es el mejor método de caracterización de esmectitas y es sensible a cambios en la densidad de carga de la lámina.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland 1981

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