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An occurrence of interstratified kaolinite-smectite minerals in a red-black soil toposequence

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 July 2018

A. J. Herbillon
Affiliation:
Section de Physico-Chimie Minérale du Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale and Université Catholique de Louvain
R. Frankart
Affiliation:
Centre d'Etudes des Sols Tropicaux, Université Catholique de Louvain, Place Croix du Sud 3, B 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
L. Vielvoye
Affiliation:
Section de Physico-Chimie Minérale du Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale and Université Catholique de Louvain

Abstract

Interstratified kaolinite-smectite minerals form the major part of a pedon transitional between ‘red’ kaolinitic and black smectitic soils in a soil toposequence derived from basalt in Burundi, Central Africa. These interstratified kaolinite-smectites have many X-ray, morphological and chemical features in common with ‘tabular halloysite’. Modifications to the 00l spacings of these minerals brought about by thermal and chemical treatments, however, show that they are not halloysite but consist of a mixture of ∼70% kaolinite and 30% smectite randomly interstratified. Field evidence indicates that these clays can be considered as a transient stage in the overall reaction smectite→kaolinite + iron oxides, which takes place in this landscape whenever the slope gradients give rise to better drainage conditions.

Résumé

Résumé

Des minéraux interstratifiés kaolinite-smectite forment la majeure partie d'un sol intermédiaire entre les sols rouges à kaolin et les sols noirs à smectite; il fait partie d'une séquence de sols dérivée d'un basalte au Burundi, Afrique Centrale. Ces interstratifiés kaolinite-smectite ont de nombreux points (diffraction des rayons X, morphologie, composition chimique) en commun avec les ‘halloysites tabulaires’. Les variations des distances basales (d 001) lors de traitements thermiques et chimiques montrent qu'il ne s'agit pas d'halloysite mais d'un mélange 70% de kaolinite et 30% de smectite interstratifiées au hasard. Les observations faites sur le terrain indiquent que ces argiles sont des phases de transition dans la réaction globale (smetite→kaolinite+oxydes de fer) qui s'installe dans ce paysage chaque fois que la pente des sols permet de meilleures conditions de drainage.

Kurzreferat

Kurzreferat

Wechselgelagerte Kaolinite-Smektit Minerale geben den Hauptbestandteil eines Bodens ab, der im Übergang zwischen roten kaolinitischen und schwarzen smektitischen Böden liegt, innerhalb einer von Basalt herrührenden Bodentoposequenz in Burundi, Zentralafrika. Diese Kaolinit-Smektit Wechsellagerungen haben viele röntgenographische, morphologische und chemische Merkmale mit blättrigen Halloysiten' gemeinsam. Jedoch zeigen die mit chemischen und thermalen Behandlungen auftretenden Modifikationen des 00l Reflexes, daß es keine Halloysite sind, sondern es sich um eine unregelmäßige Wechsellagerung von 70% Kaolinit und 30% Smektit handelt. Anzeichen im Gelände deuten darauf hin, daß diese Tone als ein Übergangsstadium in der Gesamtreaktion Smektit → Kaolinit + Eisenoxide betrachtet werden können, welche in dieser Landschaft immer dann stattfindet, wenn Hangneigungen bessere Drainbedingungen ermöglichen.

Resumen

Resumen

Minerales interestratificados caolinita-esmectita forman la mayor parte de un pedón de transición entre suelos ‘rojos’ caoliníticos y ‘negros’ esmectíticos, en una toposecuencia de suelos derivada de un basalto en Burundi, Africa Central. Estos interestratificados caolinita-esmectita tienen muchas características morfológicas, químicas y estructurales en común con la ‘haloisita tubular’. Las modificaciones de los espaciados 001 que sufren estos minerales por tratamientos témicos y químicos demuestran sin embargo, que no se trata de haloisita sino que están formados por una mezcla de alrededor del 70% de caolinita y 30% de esmectita interestratificadas al azar. Las evidencias de campo indican que estas arcillas pueden ser consideradas como un estado de transición en la reacción esmectita → caolinita+óxidos de hierro, que tiene lugar en este paisaje siempre que la inclinación de la pendiente dé lugar a unas mejores condiciones de drenaje.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland 1981

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