1 Among discussions are Conington, J., P. Vergili Maronis Opera (London, 18844), 2.537; Norden, E., P. Vergilius Maro Aeneis Buch VI (Stuttgart, 19574), 331–2; Horsfall, N., Vergil Aeneid 6 (2 vols.) (Berlin, 2013), 2.571–2.
2 Polyb. 36.10.5, 38.10–18. See especially Ferrary, J.-L., Philhellénisme et Imperialisme. Aspects idéologiques de la conquête romaine du monde hellénistique (BEFAR 271) (Rome, 1988), 186–209; on the settlement, see Lintott, A., Imperium Romanum (London, 1993), 9–10, 23–4.
3 Sources in MRR I, pages 195, 427, 461. See Livy 44.36–45 for the narrative of Perseus’ defeat at Pydna. For Ennius (Ann. 179), Pyrrhus was Aeacida, but he is not connected with the Greek cities.
4 Prop. 4.11.39; Sil. Pun. 15.291–2.
5 Polyb. 30.13.6–8; Livy 45.31.9–11; Paus. 7.10.11. Horsfall ([n. 1], 571) thinks that Mummius and Aemilius Paulus are fused, but, while one might fuse if disparaging, one does not merge great men in a rollcall of heroes.
6 Polyb. 18.22–7; Livy 33.7–11, 34.22–41; Gruen, E.S., The Hellenistic World and the Coming of Rome (2 vols.) (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1984), 1.438–55.
7 Cf. Anth. Pal. 9.152–5 for later epigrams about justice for Troy, also 9.387 (by the Emperor Hadrian), which is closest in sentiment to Virgil here: ‘The Myrmidons perished. Tell Achilles that the whole of Thessaly is under Aeneas’ descendants.’
8 Mycenae, of course, had already suffered destruction and subjection by Argos in 468 (Diod. Sic. 11.65; Paus. 2.16.4), when Sparta failed to aid the city. It figures here as part of Argos.
9 Lintott (n. 2), 177–8. See Badian, E., Titus Quinctius Flamininus: Philhellenism and Realpolitik (Cincinnati, 1970) for a biography of Flamininus.
10 Livy 35.12.6–18, 17.3–9.
11 See Badian, E., ‘Rome and Antiochus the Great’, in Studies in Greek and Roman History (Oxford, 1964), 112–39.
I am grateful for advice and encouragement to Nicholas Richardson and Peta Fowler.
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