With Marx's assertion that social existence determines the consciousness of men rather than the reverse, the ancient debate concerning freedom and necessity entered a new phase. Yet another dimension was added when Freud discovered the unconscious powers of the psyche. Subsequently, although thought has vacillated between the sociological and the psychological modes of analysis, both have underscored the deterministic sources of human behavior. Meanwhile, as if this were not enough, the assimilation of human behavior to nature, and thus also to the empirical methods of science and technology, has assured the total triumph of determinism.
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