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Servant of the Servants of God1

  • Edward Rochie Hardy (a1)


In words familiar to us all St. Paul observes that in Christ there is “neither Greek nor Jew, circumcision nor uncircumcision, Barbarian, Scythian, bond nor free.” This is usually, and I think correctly, not taken to mean that the Apostle's ideal is the abolition of human distinctions in a blank uniformity. His own love for the figure of the Body with its various members suggests rather the maintenance of differences, freed from the stigma of inferiority, in the harmony of corporate life. We were reminded last year of the importance of the Barbarian, that is the non-Greek element in the Christian tradition. My subject this address is one of the chief representatives of another element—the Roman. Neither in the passage just quoted nor in the similar one in Galatians does the Roman appear in St. Paul's listing of the differences capable of being united in Christ. But St. John tells us that the titulus upon the cross of Jesus was written in Latin as well as in Hebrew and Greek. Pious as well as scholarly comment has seen in his emphasis on this point a reference to the place of Roman along with Greek and Jew in the Christian body, and in so doing has probably sensed correctly the intent of the Evangelist. Certainly the Roman striving for liberty under law is of great concern for us today, when the alternative to law appears to be not anarchy but despotism.



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1a Colossians 3:11.

2 Buckler, F. W., “Barbarian and Greek—and Church History,” Church History, XI, 332.

3 Gregory the Great, Epistles, xiii, 34 (the Epistles are quoted by Ewald and Hartmann's numbers).

4 The Dialogues of Gregory the Great, tr. P. W., edited Gardner, Edmund G. (London and Boston, 1911).

5 Hodgkin, Thomas, Italy and Her Invaders (Oxford, 1895), V, “Lombard Invasion.”

6 Dudden, F. H., Gregory the Great (London, 1905).

7 Batiffol, Pierre, Saint Grégoire le Grand (Paris, 1927); English translation by John L. Stoddard (London, 1929).

8 II Corinthiais 11:28.

9 e. g., Epistles xiii, 40.

10 Cf. descriptions in Hodgkin, R. H., History of the Anglo-Saxons (Oxford, 1935), I, 269273; Clapham, A. W., English Romanesque Architecture before the Conquest, (Oxford, 1930), 1733; the Church of the Quatuor Coronati in Bede, , Historia Ecclesiastica, II, 7.

11 Bede, , Historia Ecclesiastica, IV, 2.

12 Council of Cloveshoe, 747, Canon 17.

13 xxvii, 21 (11).

14 Moralia, proem.; cf. discussion in Dudden, op. cit., I, 196–198.

15 Epistles, xiii, 50.

16 Wilhelm Peitz, S. J., Liber Diurnus, in Sitzungsberichte der Wiener Akademie, (1918) Bd. 185, 1140.

17 Lamentations 4:1.

18 Ezekiel 44:20.

19 Pastoral Care, i, 7.

20 Moralia, xix, 27 (18).

21 Moralia, xxxi, 10.

22 Epistles, i, 24.

23 Epistes, xiv, 12.

24 Cf. disaussion in Duehesne, L., Christian Worship, tr. McClure, M. L. (5th ed., London, 1919), 123B: and Batiffol, Pierre, History of the Roman Breviary, tr. Bayley, A. M. Y. (3rd ed., London, 1912), 4146.

26 Epistles, xi, 26.

26 Bishop, Edmund, The Genius of the Roman Rite (London, 1902).

27 Interesting parallels to its petitions may be found in Dialogues, iv, 5558.

28 Kennedy, V. L., C. S. B., The Saints of the Canon of the Mass (Studi di Antichita Cristiana, XIV), (Vatican City, 1938).

29 Frere, W. H., Studies in Early Roman Liturgy, I, The Kalendar (Oxford, 1930), 7683, 93, 98: Wyatt, E. G. P., St. Gregory and the Gregorian Music (London, 1904).

30 Klauser, Th., Dos römische Capitulare Evangeliorum (Münster, 1935); Frere, W. H., Studies in Early Roman Liturgy, vol. ii, The Roman Lectionary (Oxford, 1934); the internal evidence of the Homilies analyzed in Pfcilschifter, G., Die authentisehe Ausgabe der 40 Evangelienholmilien Gregors des Grossen (Veröffentlichungen aug dem Kirchenhistorisehen Seminar München, Munich, 1900).

31 i, 1.

32 xxxi, 11–70

33 Cf. the conference which interrupts the collection of the legend of Bishop Fortunatus in Dialogues, i. 10.

34 i, 12.

35 iv, 59.

36 iii, 36.

37 iii, 19, 28.

38 Cf. discussion of this in Mortimer, R. C., The Origins of Private Penance in the Western Churches (Oxford, 1939), 170187.

39 Cf.Butler, Cuthbert, Western Mysticism (London, 1924), 213241.

40 Moralia, i, 20, (14).

41 Cf. references and discussion in Butler, op. cit., 91–133.

42 Cf. chronological table in Dudden, , Gregory, II, 472–3.

43 Epistles, xiii, 30; xiv, 15.

44 A quotation which I cannot carry further than the source from which Batiffol took it—Krüger, G., Des Papsttum (Religionsgeschichtliche Volksbücher, IV, 1, Tübingen, 1907), 24.

45 Italy and Her Invaders, VI, 452.

46 Gregory the Great, II, 281.

47 Epistles, xiii, 34; on Gregory's style Cf.Sister Dunn, M. Borromeo, The Style of the Letters of St. Gregory the Great (Catholic University of America Patristic Studies, XXXII), (Washington, 1931).

48 St. Grégoire le Grand, 232.

1 Presidential address read at the meeting of the Society on December 29, 1942.

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Church History
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