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The Ruthenian Uniate Church in its Historical Perspective

  • Ludvik Nemec (a1)

Extract

To consider the Ruthenian Uniate Church in its historical perspective, and to encompass its complex phenomenon in a few pages is difficult for the historian who must treat this matter as an exception to the rule rather than an isolated historical event. It stands in sharp contrast to the historical precedent of the Kievan state whose inception and development, always represented politically, culturally, and ecclesiastically, the unity of all Russia. The division of Kievan Russia into principalities governed by members of the Rurik dynasty did not inhibit the cultural evolution, nor did it cut Russia off from contact with Western Europe. Rather, the cultural evolution developed in the general direction it had been given by Kiev, and contact with the West was further intensified in the principalities of Galicia-Volhynia and Novgorod. In addition to Kiev, several new centers of Russian political life developed in proportion to the number of principalities which increased as fathers divided their appanages among their children.

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References

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1. Dvornik, Francis, “Byzantine Political Ideas in Kievan Russia,” Dumbarton Oaks Papers, Nos. 9–10 (Washington, D.C., 1956), 75121.

2. Literature on the Ukraine is extensive especially in recent years. Following are listed the more important contributions of relevance to the material under consideration: Welykyj, A., Documenta Pontificum Romanorum Historiam Ukrainae Illustrantia (1075–1953), 2 vols. (Romae, 1953–1954); cf. Doroshenko, D., History of the Ukraine (Edmonton, 1939); Hrushevsky, M., A History of Ukraine (Yale University Press, 1948); Chadwick, N. K., The Beginnings of Russian History (Cambridge, 1946); Chamberlin, W. H., The Ukraine (New York, 1944); Vernadsky, G., Kievan Russia (New Haven, 1948); Krupnyckji, B., Geschichte der Ukraine (Leipzig, 1938); Korduba, E., “Die Entstehung der Ukrainischen nation,” Contributions à l'histoire de l'Ukraine au VII e. Congrès international des sciences historiques; (Lwów, 1933). Also valuable are Vlasovsky, A.'s two volume History of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (New York, 1958), and Luzntysky, Gregory's The Ukrainian Church between East and West (Philadelphia, 1954. In the most recent history texts, the Ukraine is treated in connection with Russia.

3. Chubaty, N., “The Ukrainian and Russian Conceptions of the History of Eastern Europe,” Proceedings, Shevchenko Scientific Society, I (1951), 1718. cf. Vernadsky, G. and Karpovich, M., A History of Russia (New Haven-London, 1951) I, 9698; Winter, E., Byzance und Rom in Kampf um die Ukraine (Leipzig, 1942), p. 171.

4. Chirovsky, Nicholas L. F., Old Ukraine: Its Socio-Economic History Prior to 1781 (Madison, N. J., 1963), pp. 14.

5. Dvornik, F., The Slavs in European History and Civilization (New Brunswick, N. J.: Rutgers University Press, 1962), XXI–XXVIII.

6. Martovych, O., Ukrainian Liberation Movement in Modern Times (Edinburgh, 1958), 24 ff.; cf. Chirovsky, N. F., The Economic Factors in the Growth of Russia (New York, 1957), pp. 160 ff.

7. Rudnycky, Y. and Sichynsky, V., Nazwa, , “Ukraine” Encylopedia Ukrainoznavstiva (Munich-New York, 1949), pp. 1416.

8. N. L. F. Chirovsky, op. cit., 3; cf. Simpson, G., The Names “Bus” “Russia,” “Ukraine” and Their Historical Background (Winnipeg, Manitoba, 1951); Dorošenko, D., “Die Namen “Russland,” and “Ukraine” in ihrer historischen iuid gegenwartigen Bedeutung,” Abhandlungen des Ukrainischen wissenschaftlichen Instituts in Berlin, III (1931), 323.

9. Hanak, Walter K., The Subcarpathian-Ruthenian Question: 1918–1945 (Munhall, Pa.: The Bishop B. Takaeh Carpatho-Russian Historical Society, 1962); cf. Nemee, L. and Moudry, V., The Soviet Seizure of Subcarpathian Ruthenia (Toronto, 1955); Markus, V., L'Incorporation de l'Ukraine subcarpatique a l'Ukraine sovietique 1944–1945 (Louvain, 1956); Seton-Watson, H., Eastern Europe Between the Wars (Cambridge, 1945); Feierabend, Ladislav K., Soumrak Ceskoslovenské Demokracie (Washington, D.C., 1967), p. 106115; Shandor, V., “Carpatho-Ukraine in the International Bargaining of 1918–39,” The Ukrainian Quarterly X, No. 3 (New York: 1954); Heisler, J. and Mellon, J. B., Under the Carpathians: Home of the Forgotten People (London: 1946); Hodinka, A., “L'habitat, l'économie et le passé du peuple ruthene an sud des carpathes,” Revue des études hongroises et finno-ougriennes II (1924), 244275.

10. Koneneko, Konstantyn, Ukraine and Russia: A History of the Economic Relations Between Ukraine and Russia (1654–1917) (Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Marquette University Press, 1958), passim.

11. Peleoz, J., Geschichte Jer Union der ruthenischen Kirche mit Rom, 2 vols. (WurzburgWien, 1881).

12. Sehmurlo, E., Le Saint-Siège et l'Orient Orthodoxe Russe (Prague, 1928), XVIII.

13. Halecki, Oscar, From Florence to Brest (New York, 1959).

14. Quépin, A, Un apôtre de l'union des églsses au XVII siécle, St. Josaphat, 2 vols. (Paris: 1897–1898); cf. Boresky, Theodosia, Life of St. Josaphat (Cornet Press Books, 1955); Newman, Eberhardt, A Summary of Catholic History (St. Louis: Heisler, 1961) II; Halecki, O., A History of Poland (New York: Roy Publishers, 1943); Idem, Sacrum Poloniae Millenium (Rome, 1958).

15. Steven, Runciman, The Fall of Constantinople 1453 (Cambridge University Press: 1965), pp. 145180. Cf. its review by Nemec, L., The Ukrainian Quarterly 22 (New York, 1966), 281–3.

16. There are several studies concerning this matter: Rrajcar, J., “The Ruthenian Patriarchate. Some Remarks on the Project for its establishment in the 17th Century,” Orientalia Christiana Periodica 30 (1964), 6584; cf., Tanczuk, D., “Questio Patriaarchatus Kioviensis Tempore Conaminum Unionis Ruthenorum (1582–1632),” Analecta OSBM 7 (1949), 128144; Andrusiak, M., “Sprawa Patriarchatu Kijowskiego za Wladyslawa IV,” Prace Historyczne w 30-lecie dzialanošci profesorkiej Stanislawa Zakrzewskiego, (Lwów, 1934), 271–85; Baran, A., “Progetto del Patriareato Ukraino di Gregorio XVI,” Analecta OSBM 3 (1958–1960), 454–88.

17. Theodosia Boresky, Op. Cit., pp. 46 ff.

18. Jugie, M., “Moghila Pierre,” Distionnaire de Théologie Catholique, 10 vols., 2063–2081; Cf., Ionesco, T., La vie et l'oeuvre de Pierre Movila, metropolite de Kiev (Paris, 1944).

19. Florovskij, G., Puti russkago bogoslovija (Paris, 1937).

20. Günther, O. E., “Der Vertag von Perejaslay in Widerstreit der Meinungen,” Jahrbücher für gesehiehte Osteuropas II (1954), 232–57.

21. Borschak, E. and Martel, R., Vie de Mazepa (Paris, 1931).

22. Hefele-Leclerecq, “Histoire des Conciles II 1339–40.”

23. O. Halecki, Op. Cit., pp. 33–45.

24. Welykj, A., Documenta Pontificia (Rome, 1954) IV, 203.

25. Dvornik, F., The Making of Central and Eastern Europe (London, 1949), pp. 298304.

26. Hahayevsky, I., Kyrylo-Metodiyivske Khrystiyanstvo v Rusi-Ukrayiyi (Rome, 1954).

27. Schematismus Cleri Graeci Ritus Catholicorum Diocesis Munkacsensis ad A.D. 1908, ed. Unio in 1908.

28. Documents collected by Petrov, Op. cit., pp. 89–175.

29. Hofman, G., Documents Concilii Florentini de Unione Orientalium, 3 vols. (Rome, ed. Gregoriano, , 1935).

30. Lacko, Michael, Unio Uzhorodensis (Rome, 1955), p. 81. It is the belief of this author that Jusko was never consecrated.

31. Lacko, M., Unio Uzhorodensis Ruthenorum Carpathicorum cum Ecclesia Catholica (Rome, 1955).

32. Niles, N., Symbolae ad Illustrandam Historiam Ecclesiae Orientalis in Terris Coronae S. Stephani (Oeniponte, 1885), II, 822.

33. Lacko, Op. cit., pp. 216–17.

34. Bobak, A, De Iure Patronatus Supremi Quoad Ecclesiam Ruthenicam in Hungaria (Rome, 1943).

35. Niles, Op. cit., II, 855–56. This was the former Procurator General of the Basilian Fathers in Rome.

36. Maurer, J., Cardinal Leopold Kollonitsh Primas von Ungarn, sein Leben und sen Wirken (lnnsbruck, 1888).

37. Barany, A., Eparchia Maramoriensis eiusque Unio (Rome, Gregoriano, 1959).

38. Sheregy-Pekař, , The Training pf the Carpatho-Ruthenian Clergy (Pittsburgh, 1951).

39. Baran, A., Epiakop Andrey Bachynsky (Yorkton, Sask ed. Legos, , 1963).

40. The Bull “Relata Semper” of September 22, 1819; Cf., Welykyj, , Documenta Pontifioa…, II, 327–35.

41. Winter, E., Byzance und Rom in Kampf um die Ukraine, 955–1939 (Leipzig, 1942), pp. 178–79.

42. A. Bobak, Op. cit., passim.

43. The Bull Christi fideles Graeci Ritus of June 8, 1912, AAS IV (1912), 429–35.

44. Mydlowsky, Leo, Bolshevist Persecution of Religion and Church in Ukraine in 1917–57 (London: Ukrainian Publishers, Inc., 1958); cf. Herbigny, D.Deubner, M., Evêques Russes en Exil 1918–1930 (Rome, 1939); Sukiennicki, Viktor, “Stalin and ByeloRussia's Independence,” Polish Review, 10, no. 4 (Autumn 1965), 84107; Bourdeaux, Michael, “Eastern Catholics in the Ukraine,” America, 116, no. 10 (03 11, 1967), 344345; Bacon, Jack, “Fifty Years of Persecution,” Register, 43, no. 45 (Denver, 11 5, 1967), 1011. There are numerous editorials concerning the 50th annivrsary of the Bolshevik Revolution in nfl leading periodicals in the United States and elsewhere, and all of them report on the persecution of the Church as a well established fact.

45. Boysak, Basil, The Fate of the Holy Union in Carpatho-Ukraine (Toronto-New York, 1963), pp. 210228.

46. Nemec, L., Church and Btate in Czechoslovakia (New York, 1955), pp. 204–6.

47. Korolevskji, Cyrille, Métropotite André Szeptyckji, 1865–1944 (Rome, 1964).

48. Shereghy, Basil, “Martyred Bishop of the Eparchy of Mukachevo, Theodore George Romzha,” The Byzantine Catholic World 12 No. 44 (10 29, 1967), I, 89; cf. A. Pekar, “Our Martyred Bishop Theodore Romaha,” Ibid., pp. 13–14. The entire issue was dedicated to the memory of Bishop Romzha on the twentieth anniversary of his death.

49. Mikuš, J. A., The Three Slovak Bishops (Passaic, N. J., 1953); cf. Proces proti Vlastizradnym biskupuům: Vojtassákovi, Buzalkovi a Gojdičovi (Bratislava: Ministerstvo spravedlnoosti, 1951).

50. Polak, George, “Slovak Greek Catholics in America,” Slovak studies V. (Cleveland Rome: Slovak Institute, 1965), pp. 295–65; “Byzantine-Rite Archbishop to Mark Silver Jubilee,” Catholic Standard and Times, 73, no. 12 (12 1, 1967), 1112, for a detailed account of the Ukrainian Church, led presently by Archbishop Ambroze Senyshyn, successor of Constantine Boehachevsky. There is a review of “Catholics of the Eastern Rites” and a map of Ukrainian and Ruthenian eparchies in the world: U.S.A., Canada, Brasil, Argentina, Europe, and Australia. The map has the title “Roman Catholic Ukrainian Dioceses Outside the Iron Curtain.”

51. The name “Ruthenian” is a historic name, which has been replaced by the term Ukrainian. Even Vatican official terminology replaced recently the term “Ruthenian” with that of Ukrainian (cf. Annuario Pontificio 1967) while the term “Rutheninn” is still applied to the Pittsburgh and Passaic dioceses, although these have also a term “The Byzantine-Rite Dioceses of Pittsburgh and Passaic.”

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Church History
  • ISSN: 0009-6407
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