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On the Idea of a National Church: Reassessing Congregationalism in Revolutionary England

  • Matthew C. Bingham

Extract

In 1641, the Congregational minister Thomas Goodwin delivered a series of sermons to his independent church in London, expounding the letter to the Ephesians in characteristically meticulous detail. Goodwin had recently returned to England after a brief but formative period of religious exile in the Netherlands, and as the Sundays passed, his auditors were surely moved by the oratory of a speaker so “blessed with a rich invention and a solid and exact judgment.” The minister's breadth was equally impressive. The sermons opened up a cornucopia of Christian themes, flowing from one topic to the next as Goodwin's capacious mind found stimulus in the scriptural text. Seemingly eager to follow every possible digression, application, and excursus, Goodwin's unhurried pace required thirty-six sermons simply to exhaust the epistle's first chapter. And yet, amid this abundance of subject matter, one issue in particular arrested Goodwin's attention. While delivering his thirty-fifth discourse on Ephesians, Goodwin paused to consider what he described as “the Great question of these times” and, alternatively, “the great Controversy of the times.” By the middle of 1641, Goodwin's world was experiencing an unprecedented upheaval—England had been invaded by Scottish covenanters, the archbishop of Canterbury had been arrested and imprisoned, and the king had been forced to call a parliament he would be unable to dissolve. Yet Goodwin's “great Controversy” turned not upon political or cultural convulsion but rather upon a seemingly obscure point of ecclesiastical polity, a question not often considered by modern historians and even less often fully appreciated: “the great Question of these times,” said Goodwin, was “whether yea or no . . . many congregations, many Churches united in one may not be called one particular Church.” What did this strangely worded question mean to Goodwin and his hearers, and why did the future president of Magdalen College and religious adviser to the Lord Protector deem this rather specific query the very hinge upon which the nation's future turned? To answer these questions, we must consider how the early modern English mind understood the idea of a “national church”—for though he does not explicitly invoke the term, it was, as we will see, a concept embedded at the very center of Goodwin's “great Controversy.”

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I am grateful to Crawford Gribben, Jim Davison, Colin Armstrong, and an anonymous reader for this journal for their perceptive comments and suggestions.

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1 Goodwin, Thomas, The Works of Thomas Goodwin 5 vols. (London: 1861–1704), i:xliii.

2 On political and religious uncertainty during the early 1640s see Cressy, David, England on Edge: Crisis and Revolution 1640–1642 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006).

3 Goodwin, Works, i:475.

4 See Morrill, John, The Nature of the English Revolution (London: Longman, 1994); Todd, Margo, ed., Reformation to Revolution: Politics and Religion in Early Modern England (London: Routledge, 1995); Woolrych, Austin, Britain in Revolution, 1625–1660 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), 16; Lake, Peter, “The Historiography of Purtitanism,” in The Cambridge Companion to Puritanism, ed. Coffey, John and Lim, P.C.H. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008), 346371; Prior, Charles W.A. and Burgess, Glenn, eds., England's Wars of Religion, Revisited (Farnham: Ashgate, 2011); Coward, Barry, The Stuart Age: England, 1603–1714, 4th ed. (Harrow: Longman, 2012), 167284; Braddick, Michael J., ed., The Oxford Handbook of the English Revolution (New York: Oxford University Press, 2015); and Morrill, John, “Revisionism's Wounded Legacies,” Huntington Library Quarterly 78, no. 4 (Winter 2015), 577594.

5 Spurr, John, The Post-Reformation: Religion, Politics, and Society in Britain 1603–1714 (Harlow: Pearson Longman, 2007), 103; Zakai, Avihu, “Religious Toleration and Its Enemies: The Independent Divines and the Issue of Toleration during the English Civil War,” Albion: A Quarterly Journal Concerned with British Studies 21, no. 1 (Spring 1989): 133, 9; additional examples of scholars arguing that Congregationalists rejected the national church include Shagan, Ethan H., “Rethinking Moderation in the English Revolution: The Case of An Apologeticall Narration,” in The Nature of the English Revolution Revisited: Essays in Honour of John Morrill, ed. Taylor, Stephen and Tapsell, Grant (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2013), 2752, 38; Woolrych, Britain in Revolution, 298; Nuttall, Geoffrey F., Visible Saints: The Congregational Way, 1640–1660 (Oxford: Blackwell, 1957), 62; further examples of scholars taking the opposite view include, Ha, Polly, “Religious Toleration and Ecclesiastical Independence in Revolutionary Britain, Bermuda and the Bahamas,” Church History 84, no. 4 (December 2015), 814; Hill, Christopher, “History and Denominational History,” Baptist Quarterly 22, no. 2 (1967), 67; T.M. Lawrence, “Goodwin, Thomas (1600–1680),” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography [hereafter ODNB]; Powell, Hunter, The Crisis of British Protestantism: Church Power in the Puritan Revolution 1638–44 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2015), 53, 245, 247248.

6 The following data was compiled using the Early English Books Online database, as accessed on March 22, 2018.

7 See Zaret, David, Origins of Democratic Culture: Printing, Petitions, and the Public Sphere in Early-Modern England (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000); Achinstein, Sharon, “Texts in Conflict: The Press and the Civil War,” in The Cambridge Companion to the Writing of the English Revolution, ed. Keeble, N.H. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 5068.

8 Cressy, England on Edge, 281–309.

9 Usage data for the term “consociation” further illustrates the dramatic upsurge of interest in Congregational ecclesiology. Like “national church,” “consociation” was a Congregational technical term used almost exclusively to describe the Congregational alternative to a national church model. Between 1630 and 1639 the term “consociation” appeared just seventeen times in the searchable literature. Yet between 1640 and 1649 “consociation” appears two hundred eighteen times—a 1,182% increase.

10 Zakai, “Religious Toleration and Its Enemies;” other studies of Congregationalism and mid-seventeenth-century toleration debates include Coffey, John, “Puritanism and Liberty Revisited: The Case for Toleration in the English Revolution,” The Historical Journal 41, no. 4 (December 1998): 961985; Ha, “Religious Toleration;” Chung, Youngkwon, “Parliament, the Heresy Ordinance of 1648, and Religious Toleration in Civil War England,” Journal of Church and State 57, no. 1 (Winter 2015), 119152; Polizzotto, Carolyn, “Speaking Truth to Power: The Problem of Authority in the Whitehall Debates of 1648–9,” English Historical Review 131, no. 548 (February 2016), 3163.

11 Powell, The Crisis of British Protestantism.

12 Chung, Youngkwon, “Ecclesiology, Piety, and Presbyterian and Independent Polemics During the Early Years of the English Revolution,” Church History 84, no. 2 (June 2015): 345–68.

13 Cooper, James F., Tenacious of Their Liberties: The Congregationalists in Colonial Massachusetts (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999); Hall, David D., A Reforming People: Puritanism and the Transformation of Public Life in New England (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2011); Winship, Michael P., Godly Republicanism: Puritans, Pilgrims, and a City on a Hill (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2012); Bremer, Francis J., Lay Empowerment and the Development of Puritanism (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015); Winship, Michael P., “Straining the Bonds of Puritanism: English Presbyterians Debate Ecclesiology, 1636–40,” in Puritans and Catholics in the Atlantic World, 1600–1850, ed. Gribben, Crawford and Spurlock, Scott (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016), 89111.

14 Hartog, Jonathan Den, “‘National and Provinciall Churches Are Nullityes’: Henry Dunster's Puritan Argument against the Puritan Established Church,” Journal of Church and State 56, no. 4 (Autumn 2014), 691710.

15 See Hill, “History and Denominational History.”

16 Scholars have long debated the authorship of Glimpse; for a defense of Goodwin's authorship see Wilson, John F., “A Glimpse of Syons Glory,” Church History 31, no. 1 (March 1962), 6673; see also Gribben, Crawford, The Puritan Millennium: Literature and Theology, 1550–1682 (rev. ed., Milton Keynes: Paternoster, 2008), 4849.

17 Thomas Goodwin, A Glimpse of Sions Glory (London: 1641), “Epistle to the Reader,” no pagination.

18 Powell, The Crisis of British Protestantism, 3.

19 Francis J. Bremer, “Cotton, John (1585–1652),” ODNB; Ziff, Larzer, The Career of John Cotton: Puritanism and the American Experience (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1962).

20 Baillie, Robert, A Dissuasive from the Errours of the Time (London: 1646), 5556.

21 Bremer, Francis J., Congregational Communion: Clerical Friendship in the Anglo-American Puritan Community, 1610–1692 (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1994), 1740.

22 Ibid., 257.

23 Tom Webster, “Burroughes, Jeremiah (bap. 1601?, d. 1646),” ODNB; Richard L. Greaves, “Bridge, William (1600/1601–1671),” ODNB; Cotton, John, The Way of Congregational Churches Cleared (London: 1648), 24; Norton, John, Abel Being Dead Yet Speaketh (London: 1658), 3233; Mather, Cotton, Magnalia Christi Americana: Or, the Ecclesiastical History of New England (2 vols., London: 1702), i: book iii: 46, 20.

24 Goodwin, Thomas and Nye, Philip, “To the Reader,” in Cotton, John, The Keyes to the Kingdom of Heaven (London: 1644).

25 Gribben, Crawford, John Owen and English Puritanism: Experiences of Defeat (New York: Oxford University Press, 2016), 6567; Richard L. Greaves, ‘Owen, John (1616–1683),” ODNB.

26 Pestana, Carla Gardina, The English Atlantic in an Age of Revolution, 1640–1661 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2004), 5660, 235–40; for similar phenomena taking place during the period among more radical religious dissenters, see Bingham, Matthew C., “English Baptists and the Struggle for Theological Authority, 1642–1646,” The Journal of Ecclesiastical History 68, no. 3 (July 2017), 546–69.

27 Norton, John, Responsio Ad Totam Quaestionum Syllogen À Clarissimo Viro Domino Guilielmo Apollonio (London: 1648); the work has been translated into English as Norton, John, The Answer to the Whole Set of Questions of the Celebrated Mr. William Apollonius, Pastor of the Church of Middelburg, trans. Horton, Douglas (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap, 1958); Tai Lui, “Simpson, Sidrach (c.1600–1655),” ODNB.

28 Hooker, Thomas, Survey of the Summe of Church-Discipline (London: 1648), sig. D2r.

29 Hartlib Papers, Sheffield University Library, MS 40/2/2A-46B; Cotton, John, The Doctrine of the Church . . . Demonstrated by Way of Question and Answer (London: 1642); Thomas Goodwin, The Government and Discipline of the Churches of Christ. Set Down by Way of Questions and Answers in Goodwin, Works, iv:1–35, pagination restarts with the beginning of each new work.

30 Thomas Goodwin, “Preface,” in Hooker, Survey of the Summe of Church-Discipline, sigs. dv-D2r.

31 For Thomas Hooker's decision to remain in New England and his subsequent attempts to sway English opinion through his theological writings, see Bush, Sargent Jr., The Writings of Thomas Hooker: Spiritual Adventure in Two Worlds (Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1980), 96126.

32 Cotton, John, The Way of the Churches of Christ in New-England (London: 1645), 1.

33 Nuttall, Visible Saints, viii.

34 Morgan, Edmund S., Visible Saints: The History of a Puritan Idea (New York: New York University Press, 1963), viii.

35 Cotton, The Way of the Churches of Christ in New-England, 1.

36 Stephen Wright, “Bartlet, William (1609/1610–1682),” ODNB.

37 Bartlet, William, Ichnographia or a Model of the Primitive Congregational Way (London: 1647), 30, 1.

38 Pelikan, Jaroslav and Hotchkiss, Valerie, eds., Creeds and Confessions of Faith in the Christian Tradition (3 vols., New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2003), ii:537.

39 Cameron, Euan, “The ‘Godly Community’ in Theory and Practice of the European Reformation,” in Voluntary Religion, ed. Sheils, W.J. and Wood, Diana (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1986), 132.

40 See Collinson, Patrick, “Biblical Rhetoric: The English Nation and National Sentiment in the Prophetic Mode,” in Religion and Culture in Renaissance England, ed. McEachern, Claire and Shuger, Debora (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 1545; Hill, Christopher, The English Bible and the Seventeenth-Century Revolution (London: Allen Lane, 1993), 264270; Collinson, Patrick, “John Foxe and National Consciousness,” in John Foxe and His World, ed. Highley, Christopher and King, John N. (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2002), 1034.

41 Ha, Polly, English Presbyterianism, 1590–1640 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2011), 180; Stephen Wright, “Jacob, Henry (1562/1563–1624),” ODNB.

42 Jacob, Henry, Reasons Taken out of God's Word (London: 1604), 9.

43 Cotton, The Way of Congregational Churches Cleared, 13.

44 Ames, William, The Marrow of Sacred Divinity Drawne out of the Holy Scriptures (London: 1642), 202; Keith L. Sprunger, “Ames, William (1576–1633),” ODNB.

45 Browne, Robert, An Answere to Master Cartwright (London: 1585), 14; Browne, Robert, A Booke Which Sheweth the Life and Manners of All True Christians (Middelburgh: 1582), see title page; Michael E. Moody, “Browne, Robert (1550?–1633),” ODNB; White, B.R., The English Separatist Tradition: from the Marian Martyrs to the Pilgrim Fathers (New York: Oxford University Press, 1971), 4466.

46 White, The English Separatist Tradition, 70–71.

47 ibid.; Brachlow, Stephen, The Communion of the Saints: Radical Puritan and Separatist Ecclesiology, 1570–1625 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988).

48 An Answer of the Elders of the Several Churches in New–England unto Nine Positions (London: 1643), 42.

49 Goodwin, Thomas, Of the Constitution, Right, Order, and Government of the Churches of Christ (London: 1696), 1.

50 Gillespie, George, An Assertion of the Government of the Church of Scotland (Edinburgh: 1641), 186.

51 Cawdrey, Daniel, Vindiciae Clavium (London: 1645), 62.

52 Hartlib MS 40/2/5A-B.

53 Goodwin, Works, i:475; Goodwin et al., An Apologeticall Narration, 13.

54 An Answer of the Elders, 51, 62–63.

55 Goodwin et al., An Apologeticall Narration, 6–7; also 8, 9, 12, 16, 28, and passim.

56 Forbes, Alexander, An Anatomy of Independency (London: 1644), 14.

57 Cotton, John, The Keyes of the Kingdom of Heaven (London: 1644), 24 and passim.

58 Cotton, The Way of the Churches of Christ in New-England, 112, 76, 79, and passim.

59 The exchange included three treatises: Cotton's The Way of the Churches of Christ in New-England, Rutherford's reply in The Due Right of Presbyteries (1644), and finally Cotton's The Way of the Congregational Churches Cleared (1648). The chronology is complicated, however, by the fact that Rutherford's Due Right had critiqued a manuscript edition of Cotton's Way of the Churches of Christ in New England, a treatise which was only published in 1645, a year after Rutherford's reply had appeared in print. Hunter Powell addresses the interaction between Cotton and Rutherford but does not mention Rutherford's lengthy discussion of the national church with which we are now concerned; Rutherford, Samuel, The Due Right of Presbyteries (London: 1644); Cotton, The Way of the Churches of Christ in New-England; Cotton, The Way of Congregational Churches Cleared; Powell, The Crisis of British Protestantism, 148–159.

60 Rutherford, The Due Right of Presbyteries, 50; cf. Cotton, The Way of the Churches of Christ in New-England, 1–2.

61 Rutherford, The Due Right of Presbyteries, 53.

62 Ibid., 53–54.

63 Ibid., 60.

64 Smectymnuus, An Answer to a Booke Entitvled an Humble Remonstrance (London: 1641), 80.

65 Cotton, The Way of Congregational Churches Cleared, 72, 11.

66 Burroughes, Jeremiah, A Vindication of Mr Burroughes (London: 1646), 23.

67 For Edwards and the culture of mid-seventeenth-century heresiography, see Hughes, Ann, Gangraena and the Struggle for the English Revolution (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004); Hughes, Ann, “Thomas Edwards’ Gangraena and Heresiological Traditions,” in Heresy, Literature and Politics in Early Modern English Culture, Loewenstein, David and Marshall, John (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006).

68 Edwards, Thomas, Antapologia, Or, a Full Answer to the Apologeticall Narration of Mr. Goodwin, Mr. Nye, Mr. Sympson, Mr. Burroughs, Mr. Bridge (London: 1644), 216.

69 Even Congregational minister William Bartlet missed this distinction when he cited this passage to argue that Burroughes had rejected any kind of English national church, a position Burroughes certainly would have held, but did not exactly express in the passage cited; Bartlet, Ichnographia, 51–52.

70 Cotton, The Way of Congregational Churches Cleared, 11.

71 Noll, Mark, “British Methodological Pointers for Writing a History of Theology in America,” in Seeing Things Their Way: Intellectual History and the Return of Religion, ed. Chapman, Alister, Coffey, John, and Gregory, Brad .S. (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2009), 204.

72 Although, it should be noted that even in this treatise Cotton explicitly affirmed that “[i]n the old Testament the Church set up by him [that is, Christ] was Nationall, in the New, Congregationall”; to expound this point, however, was clearly not the focus or intent of the work; John Cotton, The Keyes of the Kingdom of Heaven, 30.

73 Ibid., 15, 17–19.

74 Nuttall, Visible Saints, 43, 62–3.

75 Zakai, “Religious Toleration and Its Enemies,” 9, 10, 16.

76 Hill, “History and Denominational History,” 67.

77 Mather, Richard, Church-Government and Church-Covenant Discussed (London: 1643), 64.

78 Ibid., 65.

79 Ibid., 30.

80 Cotton, The Keyes of the Kingdom of Heaven, 17, 19.

81 Ibid., 24–25.

82 Hooker, Survey of the Summe of Church-Discipline, pt. 1:87.

83 Zakai, “Religious Toleration and Its Enemies,” 16.

84 Bartlet, Ichnographia, sig. Cv.

85 Goodwin, Works, i:475.

86 Pelikan and Hotchkiss, Creeds and Confessions of Faith in the Christian Tradition, ii:655.

87 Coffey, “Puritanism and Liberty Revisited,” 966; Blackwood, Christopher, The Storming of Antichrist (London: 1644), 23.

88 Skinner, Quentin, Visions of Politics, 3 vols. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002), i:47; see also, Chapman, et al., ed., Seeing Things Their Way.

89 Tyler, Moses Coit, A History of American Literature, 2 vols (New York: P. Putnam's Sons, 1880), i:215–216.

90 Hughes, Ann, “The Cromwellian Church,” in The Oxford History of Anglicanism, Volume I: Reformation and Identity, C. 1520–1662, ed. Milton, Anthony (New York: Oxford University Press, 2017), 445.

91 See Capp, Bernard, England's Culture Wars: Puritan Reformation and Its Enemies in the Interregnum, 1649–1660 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012).

92 See, Hughes, Ann, ‘“The Public Profession of These Nations’: The National Church in Interregnum England,” in Religion in Revolutionary England, ed. Durston, Christopher and Maltby, Judith (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2006); Worden, Blair, God's Instruments: Political Conduct in the England of Oliver Cromwell (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012), 6390; Gribben, John Owen and English Puritanism, 151–179.

93 Wood, Anthony, Athenae Oxonienses (2 vols., London: 1691–1692), ii:556.

94 Worden, God's Instruments, 119.

95 The Humble Proposals of Mr. Owen, Mr. Tho. Goodwin, Mr. Nye, Mr. Sympson, and Other Ministers (London: 1652).

96 Timothy Venning, “Lawrence, Henry, appointed Lord Lawrence under the protectorate (1600–1664),” ODNB.

97 Firth, C.H. and Rait, R.S., eds., Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum, 1642–1660 (3 vols., London: His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1911), ii:855–58, 968–90.

98 A Declaration of the Faith and Order Owned and Practiced in the Congregational Churches in England (London: 1659); Cooper, Tim, John Owen, Richard Baxter and the Formation of Nonconformity (Farnham: Ashgate, 2011), 238.

99 Hooker, Survey of the Summe of Church-Discipline, pt. 1, p. 87.

100 See Joel A. Halcomb, “A Social History of Congregational Religious Practice during the Puritan Revolution” (University of Cambridge Ph.D. thesis, 2010), 88–115.

101 Hooker, Survey of the Summe of Church-Discipline, pt. 4:38.

102 Acts and Ordinances, ii:423.

103 The preface has been traditionally attributed to John Owen; for example, Woolrych, Britain in Revolution, 717. This suggestion, however, has been questioned on stylistic grounds by Tim Cooper, and it seems to be decisively disproved by a comment from Nathaniel Mather that “Dr Goodwin and Mr Nye were the penmen” of “the prefaces to the Savoy Confession”; Nathaniel Mather, The Purity of Baptisme, British Library, add MS 23622; Cooper, John Owen, Richard Baxter, and the Formation of Nonconformity, 237.

104 Ibid., i:180–184; Chad van Dixhoorn, “The Westminster Assembly and the Reformation of the 1640s,” in The Oxford History of Anglicanism, Volume I, 430–343.

105 A Declaration of the Faith and Order Owned and Practiced in the Congregational Churches in England, 56.

106 Kenyon, J.P., ed., The Stuart Constitution 1603–1688: Documents and Commentary, 2nd ed. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986), 312.

107 Durston, Christopher, “Policing the Cromwellian Church: The Activities of the County Ejection Committees, 1654–1659,” in The Cromwellian Protectorate, ed. Little, Patrick (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2007).

108 Coffey, John, “A Ticklish Business: Defining Heresy and Orthodoxy in the Puritan Revolution,” in Heresy, Literature and Politics in Early Modern English Culture, ed. Loewenstein, David and Marshall, John (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006); Coffey, John, “The Toleration Controversy during the English Revolution” in Religion in Revolutionary England, ed. Durston, Christopher and Maltby, Judith (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2006), 4268.

109 Acts and Ordinances, ii:855–58; Collins, Jeffrey R., “The Church Settlement of Oliver Cromwell,” History 87, no. 285 (January 2002), 2729; Woolrych, Britain in Revolution, 583–8.

110 For Congregational procedure in calling ministers see Nuttall, Visible Saints, 81–94; Halcomb, “A Social History of Congregational Religious Practice,” 63–69, 76–77; the degree to which Congregational principle could be reconciled with the extra-congregational regulation of ministers would continue to be disputed among New England Congregationalists well into the eighteenth century, an ongoing conflict most famously illustrated by Jonathan Edwards’ involvement in the Robert Breck controversy; see Hall, David D., “Editor's Introduction,” in The Works of Jonathan Edwards, ed. Hall, David D. (26 vols., New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1994), xii:4–17.

111 Goodwin et al., An Apologeticall Narration, 11; see also Cotton, The Way of the Churches of Christ in New-England, 56–58.

112 Collins, “The Church Settlement of Oliver Cromwell,” 20; likewise, Jacqueline Rose, citing Collins, observes that the “magisterial Congregationalists” insisted upon the magistrate's duty to “police the limits of orthodoxy” and “promote truth;” Rose, Jacqueline, Godly Kingship in Restoration England: the Politics of the Royal Supremacy, 1660–1688 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 81; for Congregational references to the magistrate as the church's “nursing father” see, e.g., Cotton, The Keyes of the Kingdom of Heaven, 53; Hooker, Survey of the Summe of Church-Discipline, pt. 1:9, 13; pt. 2:80.

113 Owen, John, A Sermon Preached to the Honourable House of Commons in Parliament . . . with a Discourse about Toleration (London: 1649), 77.

114 MS 38.27, Register book of the fourth Classis in the Province of London 1646–1659, Dr Williams's Library, London.

115 Taylor, Jeremy, Theologia Eklektike: A Discourse of the Liberty of Prophesying (London: 1647), 1.

116 See N. H. Keeble, ed., “Settling the Peace of the Church: 1662 Revisited (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014).

I am grateful to Crawford Gribben, Jim Davison, Colin Armstrong, and an anonymous reader for this journal for their perceptive comments and suggestions.

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