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Ecclesiastical Politics and the Founding of the Federal Council of Churches

  • John Abernathy Smith (a1)

Extract

In an influential book of thirty years ago, The Rise of the Social Gospel in American Protestantism, 1865–1915, Charles Howard Hopkins interpreted the founding in 1908 of the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America, the forerunner of the present National Council, as a stage in the flowering of the social gospel in American Christianity. His interpretation was soon confirmed by John Alexander Hutchison. In We Are Not Divided, a study of the pronouncements of the Federal Council, Hutchison wrote that the Federal Council was born of the marriage between “the idea of social service and the idea of interdenominational cooperation”. By “the idea of interdenominational cooperation”, however, Hutchison meant little more than what Hopkins had already defined as the impulse for social Christianity, and there the matter has rested for subsequent historians, including two former secretaries of the Federal Council.

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1. Hopkins, Charles Howard, The Rise of the Social Gospel in American Protestantism, 1865–1915 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1940), pp. 302317.

2. Hutchinson, John Alexander, We Are Not Divided: A Critical and Historical Study of the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America (New York: Round Table Press, 1941), p. 25.

3. See, for example, Macfarland, Charles Steadman, Christian Unity in the Making: The First Twenty-five Years of the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America (New York: Federal Council of Churches, 1948), pp. 24, 27; Smith, H. Shelton, Handy, Robert T. and Loetscher, Lefferts A., American Christianity: An Historical Interpretation with Representative Documents, 2 vols. (New York: Scribner's, 19601963) 2:394: Mead, Sidney Earl, The Lively Experiment: The Shaping of Christianity in America (New York: Harper and Row, 1963), p. 182; Ahlstrom, Sydney E., A Religious History of the American People (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1972), pp. 802804; Cavert, Samuel McCrea, The American Churches in the Ecumenical Movements, 1900–1968 (New York: Association Press, 1968), pp. 2931. Macfarland and Cavert were secretaries of the Federal Council.

4. Sanford, Elias Benjamin, The Origin and History of the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America (Hartford, Connecticut: S. S. Scranton, 1916), p. iv.

5. Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States (hereafter PCUS) 5 (Wilmington, North Carolina: Jackson and Bell, 1881): 353, 356, 391392; 5 (Wilmington, North Carolina: Jackson and Bell, 1882): 523, 526, 530–531, 541, 542, 552–553; 6 (Wilmington, North Carolina: Jackson and Bell, 1883): 19, 20–23, 49–50, 54, 57–58; 6 (Wilmington, North Carolina: Jackson and Bell, 1884): 219–221, 243, 248, 249, 251; Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (hereafter PCUSA, n. s., 7 (New York: Presbyterian Board of Publication, 1882): 5066, 8384, 102103; n. a., 7 (New York: Presbyterian Board of Publication, 1883): 569, 576, 591, 596, 630, 636, 646, 687; n. s., 8 (Philadelphia: Presbyterian Board of Publication, 1884): 27, 67–70, 101.

6. Kirkpatrick, Dow, “Early Efforts at Reunion,” in The History of American Methodism, ed. Bucke, Emory Stevens et al., 3 vols. (Nashville, Tennessee: Abingdoa Press, 1964). 2:689694.

7. PCUSA, u.s., 9 (Philadelphia: By the Stated Clerk, 1886): 25–26, 57–58; n.s., 10 (Philadelphia: By the Stated Clerk, 1887): 26, 35, 57, 116–117, 128; n. s., 11 (Philadelphia: By the Stated Clerk, 1888): 85, 923–102; n. s., 12 Philadelphia: By the Sttaed Clerk, 1889): 64, 68–74, 79–80; PCUS 7 (Columbia, South Carolina: Presbyterian Publishing House, 1886): 20, 22; 7 (Columbia, South Carolina: Presbyterian Publishing House, 1887): 188, 191–192, 193–195, 200–201, 203, 205–206, 207–210, 211, 216–219, 220, 224; 7 (Richmond, Virginia: Presbyterian Committee of Publication, 1888): 420–423, 431–432, 456–463; 7 (Richmond, Virginia: Presbyterian Committee of Publication, 1889): 570–573, 576, 577, 582, 594–598; “The Prospects of Presbyterian Union,” Independent 40 (1888): 362; Charles Augustus Briggs, “Union of Northern and Southern Presbyterians,” ibid., p. 316; Briggs, Charles Augustus. “A Plea for an American Alliance,” Presbyterian Review 9 (1888) 306309.

8. Journal of the Proceedings of the Bishops, Clergy, and Laity of the Protestant Episcopal Church… Assembled in a General Convention, Held in Chicago, from October 6 to October 28… 1886 (hereafter PEC with year) (n.p.: Printed for the Convention, 1887), pp. 79–80, 199–200, 212, 256–257, 302, 800–844; “The General Convention,” Churchman 54 (1886): 497498, 539540; “Reports on Church Unity,” ibid., pp. 560–562; “ A Memorial on the Reunion of Christians,” ibid., pp. 225, 229 et passim.

9. Minutes of the Nationah Council of the Congregational Churches … in Chicago, Ill., October 3–20,1886 (hereafter NCCC with year) (Boston: Congregational Publishing Society, 1887), pp. 16, 17, 21, 22, 33–35, 36, 349–350, 356–358.

10. George Park Fisher to William E. Dodge Jr., December 3, 1887, in NCCC, 1889, (Boston: Congregational Publishing Society, 1889), pp. 251–252; Evangelical Alliance for the United States. I. Action of the United States Evangelical Alliance on the Death of its President, Hon. William E. Dodge, Document 16 (New York, 1883), pp. 67; Coxe, Arthur Cleveland, “A Christian Alliance, the Demand of Our Times,” Independent 36 (1884): 193194; “Evangelical Alliance: A Notable Reunion,” New York Observer 64 (1886): 114; National Perils and Opportunities: The Discussions of the General Christian Conference Held in Washington, D. C., December 7th, 8th, and 9th, 1887, under the Auspices of the Evangelical Alliance for the United States (New York: Baker and Taylor, 1887), pp. 303 et passim; Ward, Julius Hammond, “The Evangelical Alliance in Boston,” Churchman 60 (1889): 771.

11. Evangelical Alliance for the U. S., Eighth Annual Report… 1875, Document 11 (New York, 1875), pp. 711,Tenth and Eleventh Annual Reports… 1877 and 1878, Document 13 (New York, 1879), pp. 35, and Twelfth Annual Report … 1879, Document 15 (New York, 1879), pp. 57; Discussions of the Interdenominational Congress in the lnterest of City Evangelization, Held in Cincinnati, December 7–11, 1885 (Cincinnati: The Congress, 1886); American Congress of Churches, Proceedings of the Hartford Meeting, 1885 (Hartford, Connecticut: Case, Lockwood, and Brainerd, Co., 1885) and Proceedings of the Cleveland Meeting, May, 1886 (Hartford, Connecticut: Case, Lockwood and Brainerd Co., 1886). See also National Perils and Opportunities; National Needs and Remedies: The Discussions of the General Christian Conference Held in Boston, Massachusetts, December 4th, 5th, and 6th, 1889, under the Auspices of the Evangelical Alliance for the United States (New York: Baker and Taylor, 1890); and Christianity Practically Applied: The Discussions of the International Christian Conference Held in Chicago, October 6–14, 1893, in Connection with the World's Congress Auxiliary of the World's Columbian Exposition and under the Auspices and Direction of the Evangelical Alliance for the United States, 2 vols. (New York: Baker and Taylor, 1894).

12. “First Response to the Bishop's [sic] Declaration on Unity,” Churchman 54 (1886): 629;“The First Response to the Bishops,” Independent 38 (1886): 1346; PEC 1895 (n.p.: Printed for the Convention, 1896), pp. 613627.

13. Briggs, Charles Augustus, ed., “Letters on the Relations between the Presbyterians and Episcopalians in England by Benedict Pietet, 1708,” Presbyterian Review 8 (1887): 132133; Charles Augustus Briggs, “The Work of John Durie in Behalf of Christian Union in the Seventeenth Century,” ibid., pp. 297–309; Charles Augustus Briggs, “The Barriers to Christian Union,” ibid., pp. 441–471. See also Briggs, Charles Augustus, “Terms of Christian Union,” Christian Union 35 (05 12, 1887): 89.

14. Shields, Charles Woodruff, “The United Churches of the United States: Their Existing Agreements in Doctrine, Polity, and Worship,” Century 31 (1885): 7484, and “The United Churches of the United States, No. II: A Review of the Century Letters on Christian Unity,” Century 35 (1887): 254264. See also “Unity and the Prayerbook,” New York Observer 64 (1886): 2, and Sloan, William Milligan, “Charles Woodruff Shields:A Biographical Sketch,” in Shields, C. W., Philosophia Ultima, or Science of the Sciences, 3 vols. (New York: Scribner's, 18881905), 3: viii–lxx.

15. PCUSA, n.s., 10 (Philadelphia: By the Stated Clerk, 1887): 62, 82, 157–158; “The Beginning of a Great Movement,” Christian Union 35 (05 12, 1887): 3; “Christian Unity,” Church Union 15 (06 15, 1887): 6.

16. Acts and Proceedings of the … General Synod of the Reformed Church in America, Convened at Catskill, New York, June 1887, 16 (New York: Board of Publication of the Reformed Church in America, 1887): 363365, 368369; Briggs, , “A Plea for an American Alliance,” pp. 306309.

17. PCUSA, n. s., 13 (Philadelphia: By the Stated Clerk, 1890): 103–104; n. s., 14 (Philadelphia: By the Stated Clerk, 1891): 162–166; n. s., 15 (Philadelphia: By the Stated Clerk, 1892): 91–96; “Comity,” Home Missionary 65 (1893): 470; “Interdenominational Comity,” ibid., pp. 562–563.

18. Interdenominational Conference of Foreign Missionary Boards and Societies in the United States and Canada, Held in the Presbyterian Mission House, January 12, 1893 (New York: E. O. Jenkins' Son's Printing House, 1893), p. iii.

19. Newton, William Wilberforce, “Beginning at Jerusalem,” Christian Union 17, (1883): 268, See also [William Augustus Muhlenberg] Hints on Catholic Union by a Presbyter (New York, 1835), rpt. in Evangelical Catholic Papers: A Collection of Essays, Letters, and Tractates from Writings of Rev. William Augustus Muhlenberg, D.D., during the Last Forty Years, ed. Anne Ayres, 1st ser. (Suffolk Co., New York: St. Johnland Press, 1875), pp. 2732, and Newton, William Wilberforce, Dr. Muhlenberg (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1890), pp. viii, 123ff., 149.

20. Newton, William Wilberforce, The Vine Out of Egypt (New York: Thomas Whittaker, 1887), pp. 128129.

21. Davidson, Randall Thomas, ed., The Six Lambeth Conferences, 1867–1920 (London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1929), pp. 122, 156161; Jewell, Frederick S., “Church Unity and the Convention,” Church Eclectic 21 (1892): 2425.

22. “Chureh Reunion,” Church Review 59 (10 1890): iii–iv, 11221. See “The Historic Episcopate as a Basis of Reunion,” Church Review 57 (04 1890): 11144.

23. McCosh, James, “Federation of Churches to Secure that the Gospel Be Preached to Every Creature,” Christian Union 41 (1890): 180190; McCosh, James, “Federation of Evangelical Churches,” Church Review, 57 (04 1890): 132134; McCosh, James, “Federation of Churches,” Homiletic Review 21 (1891): 398. See also “Federation of Churches for Evangelistic Work,” Independent 42 (1890): 778779.

24. Acts and Proceedings of the … General Synod of the Reformed Church in America, Convened at Asbury Park, N. J., June, 1890 17 (New York: Board of Publication of the Reformed Church in America, 1890): 124134; … Convened at Asbury Park, N. J., June, 1891 (New York: Board of Publication of the Reformed Church in America, 1891): 343359; … Convened at Asbury Park, N. J., June, 1892, 17 (New York: Board of Publication of the Reformed Church in America, 1892): 577586;… Convened at Asbury Park, N. J., June 1893, 17 (New York: Board of Plublication of the Reformed Church in America, 1893) 816823; Acts and Proceedings of the General Synod of the Reformed Church in the United States at Lebanon, Pa., May, 1890 (Dayton, Ohio: Reformed Publishing Company 1890), pp. 3640; … Convened in Special Session at Philadelphia, Pa., June 4–6, 1891 (Dayton, Ohio: Reformed Publishing Company, 1891), passim; … at Reading, Pa., May 24 to June 1, 1893 (Dayton, Ohio: Reformed Publishing Company, 1893), pp. 28, 33, 4245; Harmelink, Herman, III, Ecumenism and the Reformed Church (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, 1968), pp. 3254.

25. PCUSA, n.s., 14 (Philadelphia: By the Stated Clerk, 1891): 206–207; n. s. 15 (Philadelphia: By the Stated Clerk, 1892): 38–41; n. s., 17 (Philadelphia: By the Stated Clerk 1894): 164–166; n. s., 19 (Philadelphia: By the Stated Clerk, 1896): 47, 180–182; Report of the Special Committee on Church Unity [PCUSA] (n. p., 1893), pp. 1214.

26. NCCC, 1892 (Boston: Congregational Sunday School and Publishing Society, 1893), pp. 39–40, 109–113.

27. Journal of the … General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, Held in Memphis, Tennessee, May 3–21, 1894 (Nashville, Tennessee: Publishing House, Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 1894), pp. 117, 118, 128, 162, 177, 217219; … in Baltimore, Maryland, May 5–23, 1898 (Nashville, Tennessee: Publishing House, Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 1898), pp. 72, 85, 171172, 237247;… in Dallas, Texas, May 7–26, 1902 (Nashville, Tennessee: Publishing House, Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 1902), pp. 70, 81, 161–62, 171, … in Asheville, N. C., May 4–21, 1910 (Nashville, Tennessee: Publishing House, Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 1910), p. 264; Journal of the … General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, Held in Cleveland, Ohio, May 1–28, 1896 (New York: Eaton and Mains, 1896), p. 178; … in Chicago, Illinois, May 2–29, 1900 (New York: Eaton and Mains, 1900), pp. 323, 329, 367370, 469470; … in Baltimore, Maryland, May 6-June 1, 1908 (New York: Eaton and Mains, 1908), pp. 417418, 621625. 919928: Moser, Frederick E.. “The Story of Unification,” in Bueke et al., eds.. History of American Methodism, 3: 412414.

28. Proceedings of the Southern Baptist Convention … Held at Dallas. Texas, May 11–15, 1894 (Atlanta, Georgia: Franklin Printing and Publishing Co., 1894). pp. 1516; … at Washington, D. C., 05 10–14. 1895 (Atlanta. Georgia: Franklin Printing and Publishing Co., 1895), pp. 1416; Baker, Robert Andrew. Relations between Northern and Southern Baptists (Fort Worth, Texas: Seminary Hill Press, 1948). pp. 184202; Barnes, William Wright, The Southern Baptist Convention, 1845–1953 (Nashville, Tennessee: Broadman Press, 1954), pp. 80, 263268.

29. Proceedings of the … Convention of the General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Session at Canton, Ohio, May 24-June 1. 1893 (Philadelphia: Lutheran Publication Society, 1893), p. 50: at Hagerstown. Md., 06 5–13, 1895 (Philadelphia: Lutheran Publication Society, 1895), pp. 56, 7779; Minutes of the … Convention of the General Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church. Held in Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church, Ft. Wayne, Indiana, October 5th to October 10th. 1893 (Lancaster. Ohio: Eagle Job Printing House, 1893), pp. 1113, 8889; … in St. John's Church, Erie, Pa., October 14–20, 1897 (Philadelphia: General Council Publication Board, 1897). pp. 910, 6263, 129130; Minutes of the … Convention of the United Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the South, Held in Christ Church, Staunton. Virginia, September 18–21, 1895 (Asheville, North Carolina: Southern Lutheran Printing Co., 1895), pp. 5659; … in Luther Chapel Church, Newbury, S. C., May 11–16, 1898 (New Market, Virginia: Henkel and Co.'s Steam Printing House, 1898), pp. 4849; The First General Conference of Lutherans in America, Held in Philadelphia, December 27–29, 1898 (Philadelphia: Lutheran Publication Board and General Council Publication Board, 1899), p. 16.

30. de Witt Hyde, William, “Religious Cooperation in Maine,” Review of Reviews [New York] 5 (1892): 5152; de Witt Hyde, William, “Christian Cooperakion in Church Extension,” in Christianity Practically Applied, 1:261272; de Witt Hyde, William, “Church Union a Necessity: The Maine Experiment,” Forum 14 (1893): 154162; The Interdenominational Commission of Maine (Portland, Maine, 1894), pamphlet in Union Theological Seminary Library, New York.

31. McCosh, James, “The Federation of Churches,” in Christianity Practically Applied, 1: 230233; Barrows, John Henry, ed., The World's Parliament of Religions, 2 vols. (Chicago: Parliament Publishing Co., 1893), 2: 11791220 et passim; Feldman, Egal, “American Ecumenism: Chicago's World's Parliament of Religions of 1893,” Journal of Church and State 9 (1967): 180199.

32. McCosh, James, O Whither? Tell Me Where (New York: Scribner's, 1889), pp. 4344; McCosh, , “Federation of Churches to Secure that the Gospel Be Preached to Every Creature,” p. 190. See Briggs, Charles Augustus, “The Barriers to Christian Union,” Presbyterian Review 8 (1887): 435436, 410471 and Whither? A Theological Question for the Times (New York: Scribner's, 1889), pp. 237, 244, 261265.

33. PCUSA, n. s., 17 (Philadelphia: By the Stated Clerk, 1894): 25–29; PEC 1895 (n.p.: Printed for the Convention, 1895): 608–627: The Correspondence between the Committee on Church Unity of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. and the Commission on Christian Unity of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the U. S. (Philadelphia: By the Stated Clerk, 1896).

34. PCUSA, n. s., 17 (Philadelphia: By the Stated Clerk, 1896): 22, 143–144, 206–209.

35. Ibid., pp. 22, 25, 164–166; n. s., 18 (Philadelphia: By the Stated Clerk, 1895): 25, 27; n. s., 19 (Philadelphia: By the Stated Clerk, 1896): 47, 105, 180–183.

36. Ibid., pp. 66–69: n. s., 20 (Philadelphia: By the Stated Clerk, 1897): 156–157.

37. Strong, Josiah, “Practical Cooperation in Christian Work,” Review of Reviews [New York] 6 (1892): 301. See also Strong, Josiah, The New Era, or the Coming Kingdom (New York: Baker and Taylor, 1893), pp. 312314.

38. Evangelical Alliance, U. S., Manuscript Minutes, 5 vols., 4: 107–108, 126, 149, 176, 213,223, 255, 278, 301, in Union Theological Seminary Library, New York; Strong, Josiah, “Local Alliances,’ American Journal of Sociology 1 (1895): 170181.

39. Josiah Strong to Robert M. Patterson, September 16, 1893, in Evangelical Alliance, U.S., Letters, 6 pressbook vols. 3:159, 287–288, in Union Theological Seminary Library, New York.

40. Sanford, pp. 34–57; Abell, Aaron Ignatius, The Urban Impact on American Protestantism, 1865–1900 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1943), pp. 161163; The Open or Institutional Church League: Preliminary Conference Held in the Madison Avenue Presbyterian Church, March 27, 1894 (Boston, 1894).

41. Berry, Charles A., “Federation of the Churches and Arbitration in America,” Homiletic Review 26 (1899): 133138; “Federation of the Churches,” Homiletic Review 25 (1898): 9697; Jordon, Edward Kenneth Henry, Free Church Council: History of the Free Church Council Movement, 1896–1941 (London: Lutterworth Press, 1956), pp. 3676.

42. Sanford, pp. 85, 103–111, 432–436; A Brief Statement of the Need, Purpose, and Work of a National Federation of Churches and Christian Workers in the United States, with a Sketch of the Work of the Federation of Churches and Christian Workers in New York City (New York, 1898), pp. 2 et passim, pamphlet in Union Theological Seminary Library, New York.

43. Sanford, pp. 110–111, 116–117; “The Federation,” Outlook 61 (1899): 565;“Conference in the Interest of Federative Action among Churches and Christian Workers in the United States, Held in Philadelphia, February 5, 6, 1901,” in Federation Chronicle:Published in the Interests of the Work of the National Federation of Churches and Christian Workers (New York, 1901), pp. 12.

44. Sanford, pp. 112–145; Federation Chronicle, pp. 2–12.

45. Sanford, pp. 305–306; Church Federation: First Annual Report of the Executive Committee of the Federal Council (New York, 1909), p. 14;Third Annual Report… (New York, 1911), pp. 8 et passim.

46. Elias Benjamin Sanford to Charles Steadman Macfarland, May 14, 1916, and to Samuel McCrea Cavert, August 16, 1922, in Sanford Special Correspondence File, Archives of the National Council of Churches; Macfarland, Charles Steadman, Across the Years (New York: Macmillan, 1936), pp. 8696; Macfarland, Charles Steadman, The Churches of the Federal Council: Their History, Organization, and Distinctive Characteristics and a Statement of the Federal Council (New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1916), p. 246.

47. de Land Leete, Frederick, Christian Brotherhoods (Cincinnati, Ohio: Jennings and Graham, 1912), pp. 291296.

48. Elias Benjamin Sanford to Charles Steadman Macfarland, June 30, 1922, and to Samuel MeCrea Cavert, February 28, 1923, in Sanford Special Correspondence File, Archives of the National Council of Churches.

49. NCCC 1895 (Boston: Congregational Sunday School and Publishing Society, 1896), pp. 20–21, 34–37, 282–308; NCCC 1898 (Boston: Congregational Sunday School and Publishing Society, 1898), p. 36.

50. NCCC, 1904 (Boston: Office of the Secretary of the National Council, 1904), pp. 468 474, 546–548; 1907 (Boston: Office of the secretary of the Nationa1 Council, 1907), pp. 284–291; Atkins, Gaius Glenn and Flagley, Frederick Louis, History of American Congregationalism (Boston: Pilgrim Press, 1942), pp. 353354; Drury, Augustus Waldo, History of the Church of the United Brethren in Christ (Dayton, Ohio: Otterbein Press, 1924), pp. 528532.

51. In Bradford, Amory H., ed., The Question of Unity: Many Voices Concerning the Reunion of Christendom (New York: Christian Literature Co., 1894), p. 34.

52. Dorn, Jacob Henry, Washington Gladden: Prophet of the Social Gospel (Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University Press, 1968), p. 355.

53. Sanford, pp. 119–121.

54. Ibid., p. 174; NCCC 1901 (Boston: By the Publishing Committee of the National Council, 1901), pp. 35–36, 149–151; Amory H. Bradford. William Hayes Ward, and Washington Choate to Nacy M. Waters, March 3, 1902, in Archives of the National Council of Churches.

55. Sanford. pp. 179, 198–200. See “Church Union and Church Federation,” Independent 55 (1903): 27012702, and James Harvey Garrison to Elias Benjamin Sanford, January 21, 1903, in Sanford Special Correspondence File, Archives of the National Council of Churches.

56. Loetscher, Lefferts Augustine, The Broadening Church: A Study of Theological Issues in the Presbyterian Church since 1869 (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1954), pp. 64, 66.

57. PCUSA, n. s., 2 (Philadelphia: By the Stated Clerk, 1902): 125; n. s., 3 (Philadelphia: By the Stated Clerk, 1903): 134–140; n. s., 4 (Philadelphia: By the Stated Clerk,1904): 75, 235; PEC 1901 (n. p.: Printed for the Convention, 1902), pp. 192, 295–296, 301, 308; PEC 1904 (New York: Printed for the Convention, 1905), pp. 21–22: PEC 1907 (New York: Printed for the Convention, 1907), pp. 22, 291, 514–517; “Church Union and Church Federation,” p. 2701.

58. PCUSA, n. s., 3 (Philadelphia: By the Stated Clerk, 1903): 91, 147, 169; Loetscher, pp. 83–89.

59. Sanford, p. 210.

60. PCUSA, n. s., 4 (Philadelphia: By the Stated Clerk, 1904): 21, 57, 76, 104–105, 119–140, 152 157; n. s., 5 (Philadelphia: By the Stated Clerk, 1905): 68, 77–78, 81, 86, 109, 110–117, 182; n. s., 6 (Philadelphia: By the Stated Clerk, 1906): 15, 16, 52, 123–151, 173, 210–211, 233; PCUS 1907 (Richmond, Virginia: Presbyterian Committee of Publication, 1907), pp. 43–47, 55–58; Handy, Robert Theodore, We Witness Together: The Story of Cooperative Home Missions (New York: Friendship Press, 1956), p. 24.

61. Church Federation: Interchurch Conference on Federation, New York, November 15–21, 1905, ed. Elias Benjamin Sanford (New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1906), pp. 43, 637667; Sanford, pp. 196–197; PEC 1904:60.

62. Sanford, p. 210.

63. Church Federation, pp. 75–101. See also Report of the First Meeting of the Federal Council, Philadelphia, 1908 (New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1909), p. 77.

64. Ward, William Hayes, “A Federal Congress of Churches,” Independent 59 (1905): 11351141.

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