Skip to main content Accessibility help

Rescue of H5N1 subtype avian influenza A virus lethal to mice

  • Pan Wei-Qi (a1) (a2), Liu Ming (a1), Zhang Yun (a1), Liu Chun-Guo (a1), Yang Tao (a1) and Li Jing-Peng (a2)...


Avian influenza virus is acquiring the ability to cross the species barrier between birds and mammals. However, the genetic mechanism of this ability is not well known. We successfully rescued an influenza A virus A/Chicken/Guangdong/03 (H5N1), which is highly pathogenic to both SPF chickens and BALB/c mice, by plasmid-based reverse genetics. The rescued virus, R-A/Chicken/Guangdong/03 (R-CG), and the wild-type A/Chicken/Guangdong/03 (W-CG) were found to share similar biological properties, such as in titres of 50% egg infectious dose (EID50), 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) and intravenous pathogenicity index (IPVI). R-CG, like W-CG, is highly pathogenic in mice following natural route infection. Both R-CG and W-CG viruses can be isolated from many organs of mice such as brain, lung, kidney and spleen. As a result, the constructed R-CG reverse genetic system can be used as a tool in the investigation of the molecular mechanism of infection of the mammalian host by avian influenza virus.


Corresponding author

*Corresponding author. E-mail:


Hide All
Chen, H, Deng, G, Li, Z, et al. (2004) The evolution of H5N1 influenza viruses in ducks in southern China. Proceedings of the National Academic of Sciences of the United States of America 101: 1045210457.
Chotpitayasunondh, T, Ungchusak, K, Hanshaoworakul, W, et al. (2005) Human disease from influenza A (H5N1), Thailand, 2004. Emerging Infectious Disease 11: 201209.
Fodor, E, Devenish, L, Engelhardt, OG, Palade, P, Brownlee, GG and Garcia-Sastre, A (1999) Rescue of influenza A virus from recombinant DNA. Journal of Virology 73: 96799682.
Hatta, M, Gao, P, Hoffman, P and Kawaoka, Y (2001) Molecular basis for high virulence of Hong Kong H5N1 influenza A viruses. Science 293: 18401841.
Hoffman, E, Neumann, G, Kawaoka, Y, Hobom, G and Webster, RG (2000) A DNA transfection system for generation of influenza A virus from eight plasmids. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 97: 61086113.
Hoffman, E, Stech, J, Guan, Y, Webster, RG and Perze, DR (2001) Universal primer set for full-length amplification of all influenza A viruses. Archives of Virology 146: 22752289.
Keawcharoen, J, Oraveerakul, K, Kuiken, T, et al. (2004) Avian influenza H5N1 in tigers and leopards. Emerging Infectious Disease 10(12): 21892191.
Kuiken, T, Rimmelzwaan, G, van Riel, D, et al. (2004) Avian H5N1 influenza in cats. Science 306(5694): 241.
Neumann, G, Watanable, T, Ito, H, et al. (1999) Generation of influenza A viruses entirely from cloned cDNAs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96: 93459350.
Neumann, G, Whitt, MA and Kawaoka, Y (2002) A decade after the generation of a negative-sense RNA virus from cloned cDNA – what have we learned. Journal of General Virology 83: 26352662.
OIE (2004) Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals (Mammals, Birds and Bees), 5th ed. Paris: Office International des Epizooties, pp. 261263.
Ploth, SJ, Bouloy, M, Ulmanen, I and Krug, RM (1981) A unique cap(m7GpppXm)-dependent influenza virion endonuclease cleaves capped RNAs to generate the primers that initiate viral RNA transcription. Cell 23: 847858.
Reed, LJ and Muench, H (1938) A simple method for estimating fifty percent endpoints. American Journal of Hygiene 27: 493497.
Webster, RG, Bean, WJ, Gorman, OT, Chambers, TM and Kawaoka, Y (1992) Evolution and ecology of influenza A virus. Microbiology Review 56: 152179.
WHO (2002) Manual on Animal Influenza Diagnosis and Surveillance, Vol. 5. Switzerland: World Health Organization, pp. 5052.



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed