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The Cultural Revolution and Its Legacies in International Perspective

  • Julia Lovell (a1)

Abstract

This article explores the rhetoric and reality of the Cultural Revolution as an international phenomenon, examining (through published and oral histories) the ways in which it was perceived and interpreted beyond China. It focuses in particular on the diverse impact of Maoist ideas and practice on the counterculture movement of Western Europe and North America during the late 1960s and 1970s. Within Europe, Cultural Revolution Maoism galvanized Dadaist student protest, nurtured feminist and gay rights activism, and legitimized urban guerrilla terrorism. In the United States, meanwhile, it bolstered a broad programme of anti-racist civil rights campaigns and narrow Marxist-Leninist party-building. Despite Mao's hopes to launch a global permanent revolution, it appears that, over the long term, enthusiasm for the Cultural Revolution in Western Europe, the United States and parts of South-East Asia helped to splinter the radical left and assisted the right in consolidating its power throughout the 1980s and beyond.

文章考察了文化大革命作为一种国际现象的修辞和现实状况, 并 (通过已出版和口述历史文献) 对文革在海外被理解和诠释的方式进行了研究。文章特别就 1960 年末和 1970 年代期间, 毛泽东思想及其实践对西欧和北美的反文化运动的不同影响, 进行了集中的论述。在欧洲, 关于文化大革命的毛泽东思想, 给达达主义 (Dadaist) 学生反抗运动提供了支持, 培育了女权主义者和同志争取权利的激进主义, 并为城市游击战恐怖主义提供了合法依据。而在同时期的美国, 毛泽东思想又为广泛的反种族主义民权运动, 以及狭义马克思列宁主义的政党建设, 推波助澜。尽管毛泽东的愿望是发动一场全球范围的持久革命, 但从长远来看, 在欧洲、美国和东南亚部分地区, 对文化大革命的热情, 加速了激进左翼的分裂, 而在 1980 年代和之后, 巩固和强化了右派的势力。

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The Cultural Revolution and Its Legacies in International Perspective

  • Julia Lovell (a1)

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