Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Female sex worker’s children: their vulnerability in Iran

  • Saeid Mirzaei (a1), Sajad Khosravi (a1) and Nadia Oroomiei (a1)

Abstract

This qualitative study used a narrative approach to address the vulnerabilities and problems experienced by the children of sex workers in Iran. A purposive sample of women who were referred to drop-in centres were invited to take part in semi-structured interviews. An analysis of the data identified 8 main themes and 12 sub-themes, most of which related to risks and harm being perpetrated on the children of sex workers. The main risk to these children was the likelihood that they would escape from home and become sex workers themselves. Also identified as problematic was the risk of child labour, becoming members of offending groups and becoming a member of a brothel.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Nadia Oroomiei, Email: n_oroomiei@yahoo.com

References

Hide All
Abadi, M. A.-A., Abolghasemi, J., Rimaz, S., Majdzadeh, R., Shokoohi, M., Rostami-Maskopaee, F., & Merghati-Khoei, E. (2018). High-risk behaviors among regular and casual female sexworkers in Iran: A report from western Asia. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 12(1), e9744. doi:10.5812/ijpbs.9744
Abbasi, M., Gooshki, E. S., & Allahbedashti, N. (2014). Abortion in Iranian legal system: A review. Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, 13(1), 7184.
Abel, G. M. (2014). A decade of decriminalization: Sex work ‘down under’ but not underground. Criminology and Criminal Justice, 14(5), 580592. doi:10.1177/1748895814523024
Acharya, A. K. (2010). Feminization of migration and trafficking of women in Mexico. Revista de Cercetare Si Interventie Sociala, 30(1), 1938. Retrieved from https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-78149437982&partnerID=40&md5=839007ff2b1d2b5fa4d33ae9af600a1f
Adhikari, H. (2007). Growing up in an adverse milieu education and occupation of sex workers’ children. Indian Journal of Social Work, 68(2), 282307. Retrieved from https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-61349181337&partnerID=40&md5=526faa92797cb5c1d5295294baffe65f
AIDS Office Ministry of Health. (2010). AIDS monitoring report in Iran. Tehran: Ministry of Health.
Akbarzadeh, M., Yazdanpanahi, Z., Zarshenas, L., & Sharif, F. (2016). The women’s perceptions about unwanted pregnancy: A qualitative study in Iran. Global Journal of Health Science, 8(5), 189.
Ansari-Pour, M. (1999). The legal relationship of a father with his illegitimate child under Islamic and Iranian law. Yearbook of Islamic and Middle Eastern Law Online, 6(1), 140155. doi:10.1163/221129800X00104
Beard, J., Biemba, G., Brooks, M. I., Costello, J., Ommerborn, M., Bresnahan, M., … Simon, J. L. (2010). Children of female sex workers and drug users: A review of vulnerability, resilience and family-centred models of care. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 13(Suppl. 2). doi:10.1186/1758-2652-13-S2-S6
Beckham, S. W., Shembilu, C. R., Winch, P. J., Beyrer, C., & Kerrigan, D. L. (2015). ‘If you have children, you have responsibilities’: motherhood, sex work and HIV in southern Tanzania. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 17(2), 165179.
Boyer, C. B., Greenberg, L., Chutuape, K., Walker, B., Monte, D., Kirk, J., … Network, A. M. T. (2017). Exchange of sex for drugs or money in adolescents and young adults: An examination of sociodemographic factors, HIV-related risk, and community context. Journal of Community Health, 42(1), 90100.
Cedeño, M. (2012). Pimps, johns, and juvenile prostitutes: Is New York doing enough to combat the commercial sexual exploitation of children. Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy, 22, 153.
Domènech, C. B., & Pérez, J. A. T. (2019). Sex worker. In Bartolini, A., Cippitani, R., & Colcelli, V. (Éds.), Dictionary of Statuses within EU Law (pp. 511516). Switzerland: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-00554-2_65
Duff, P., Bingham, B., Simo, A., Jury, D., Reading, C., & Shannon, K. (2014). The ‘Stolen Generations’ of mothers and daughters: Child apprehension and enhanced HIV vulnerabilities for sex workers of aboriginal ancestry. PLoS One, 9(6), e99664.
Duff, P., Shoveller, J., Chettiar, J., Feng, C., Nicoletti, R., & Shannon, K. (2015). Sex work and motherhood: Social and structural barriers to health and social services for pregnant and parenting street and off-street sex workers. Health Care for Women International, 36(9), 10391055.
Ghimire, L., & van Teijlingen, E. (2009). Barriers to utilisation of sexual health services by female sex workers in Nepal. Global Journal of Health Science, 1, 1222.
Gilchrist, G., & Taylor, A. (2009). Drug‐using mothers: Factors associated with retaining care of their children. Drug and Alcohol Review, 28(2), 175185.
Haeri, S. (1994). Temporary marriage: an Islamic discourse on female sexuality in Iran. New York: Tauris Publishers.
Hamzić, V., & Mir-Hosseini, Z. (2010). Control and sexuality: The revival of zina laws in Muslim contexts (Women Livi). London: Women Living Under Muslim Laws.
Hasnain, M. (2005). Cultural approach to HIV/AIDS harm reduction in Muslim countries. Harm Reduction Journal, 2(1), 23.
Hedayat, K. M., Shooshtarizadeh, P., & Raza, M. (2006). Therapeutic abortion in Islam: Contemporary views of Muslim Shiite scholars and effect of recent Iranian legislation. Journal of Medical Ethics, 32(11), 652657.
Hosseini‐Chavoshi, M., Abbasi‐Shavazi, M. J., Glazebrook, D., & McDonald, P. (2012). Social and psychological consequences of abortion in Iran. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 118, S172S177.
Ivers, L. C., & Cullen, K. A. (2011). Food insecurity: Special considerations for women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 94(6), 1740S1744S. doi:10.3945/ajcn.111.012617
Izadi, H., & Zarghami, A. (2014). The study of social and the economical factors on prostitution phenomena in Shiraz at 2010. Quarterly Journal of Social Development, 9(1), 227245.
Karamouzian, M., Foroozanfar, Z., Ahmadi, A., Haghdoost, A. A., Vogel, J., & Zolala, F. (2016). How sex work becomes an option: Experiences of female sex workers in Kerman, Iran. Culture, Health and Sexuality, 18(1), 5870. doi:10.1080/13691058.2015.1059487
Lally, A. (2016). Holistic development: Children’s health and well-being. In Trodd, L. (Ed.), The early years handbook for students and practitioners: An essential guide for the foundation degree and levels 4 and 5 (pp. 1924). London and New York: Routledge.
Ma, P. H. X., Chan, Z. C. Y., & Loke, A. Y. (2019). Conflicting identities between sex workers and motherhood: A systematic review. Women & Health, 59(5), 534557. doi:10.1080/03630242.2018.1500417
Menashri, D. (2012). Post-revolutionary politics in Iran: Religion, society and power. London: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9780203045428
Moradi-Lakeh, M., & Vosoogh-Moghaddam, A. (2015). Health sector evolution plan in Iran: Equity and sustainability concerns. International Journal of Health Policy and Management, 4(10), 637640.
Office of Social Welfare in Iran. (2017). Social harm. Tehran: State Welfare Organization of Iran.
Pandey, S., Kaufman, M. R., Tewari, H. R., & Bhowmick, P. K. (2015). Life in the red light: A qualitative investigation of the daily life of trafficking victims in Indian brothels. Journal of Trafficking, Organized Crime and Security, 1(1), 3646.
Pardeshi, G., & Bhattacharya, S. (2006). Child rearing practices amongst brothel based commercial sex workers. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences, 60(7), 288. doi:10.4103/0970-0218.191094
Raffaelli, M., & Koller, S. H. (2016). Children and adolescents in street settings. Handbook of children’s rights: Global and multidisciplinary perspectives. New York & London: Taylor & Francis.
Ranji, A. (2012). Induced abortion in Iran: Prevalence, reasons, and consequences. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 57(5), 482488.
Reed, E., Gupta, J., Biradavolu, M., Devireddy, V., & Blankenship, K. M. (2011). The role of housing in determining HIV risk among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India: considering women’s life contexts. Social Science & Medicine, 72(5), 710716.
Sawicki, D. A., Meffert, B. N., Read, K., & Heinz, A. J. (2019). Culturally competent health care for sex workers: An examination of myths that stigmatize sex work and hinder access to care. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 34(3), 117.
Servin, A. E., Strathdee, S., Muñoz, F. A., Vera, A., Rangel, G., & Silverman, J. G. (2015). Vulnerabilities faced by the children of sex workers in two Mexico-US border cities: A retrospective study on sexual violence, substance use and HIV risk. AIDS Care – Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV, 27(1), 15. doi:10.1080/09540121.2014.946384
Shohel, M. M. C. (2013). Access to education for the children of sex workers in Bangladesh: opportunities and challenges. Child Studies in Diverse Contexts, 3(1), 1331. doi:10.5723/csdc.2013.3.1.013
Silverman, D. (2013). Doing qualitative research: A practical handbook. Washington, DC: SAGE Publications Limited.
Taleban, R., Moafi, M., Ataei, B., Yaran, M., Nokhodian, Z., Kassaian, N., … Javadi, A. (2018). Seroprevalence of hepatitis B infection and associated risk factors among drug users in drop-in centers of Isfahan, Iran. International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 9(1), 4653. doi:10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_382_16
UNAIDS. (2010). Making the law work for the HIV response: a snapshot of selected laws that support or block universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support [online]. Geneva. Retrieved from https://data.unaids.org/pub/basedocument/2010/20100728_HR_Poster_en.pdf
Willis, B., Hodgson, I., & Lovich, R. (2014). The health and social well-being of female sex workers’ children in Bangladesh: A qualitative study from Dhaka, Chittagong, and Sylhet. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 9(2), 123131. doi:10.1080/17450128.2013.804970
Willis, B., Onda, S., & Stoklosa, H. M. (2016). Causes of maternal and child mortality among Cambodian sex workers and their children: A cross sectional study. BMC Public Health, 16(1), 18. doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3838-7
Willis, B., Vines, D., Bubar, S., & Suchard, M. R. (2016). The health of children whose mothers are trafficked or in sex work in the U.S.: An exploratory study. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 11(2), 127135. doi:10.1080/17450128.2016.1189019
Willis, B., Welch, K., & Onda, S. (2016). Health of female sex workers and their children: A call for action. The Lancet Global Health, 4(7), e438e439.
Yerpude, P., & Jogdand, K. (2012). Child rearing practices amongst brothel-based commercial sex workers. Indian Journal Of Community Medicine: Official Publication of the Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine, 37(3), 197. doi:10.4103/0970-0218.99932
Zarghami, M. (2015). Iranian common attitude toward opium consumption. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 9(2), 14. doi:10.17795/ijpbs2074

Keywords

Female sex worker’s children: their vulnerability in Iran

  • Saeid Mirzaei (a1), Sajad Khosravi (a1) and Nadia Oroomiei (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed