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Rewriting the Reich: German Women Journalists as Transnational Mediators for Germany's Rehabilitation

  • Deborah Barton (a1)
Abstract

This article looks at the transnational impact of two diaries written by the female German journalists Ruth Andreas-Friedrich and Ursula von Kardorff, whose journals shed light on German wartime experiences, resistance activities, and, to a lesser extent, the press. In the postwar years, both journalists sought to influence (West) Germany's relationship with its former enemies, in particular the United States. In their autobiographical writing, they presented both an image of Germany as a victim of Nazism, as well as an early acknowledgment of German crimes. In this way, they achieved a balanced narrative that received a positive reception from American and German audiences. Though the ways in which Friedrich and Kardorff presented aspects of journalism and everyday life in the Third Reich were not unique, their dual identity as women and journalists underlay their ability to act as “legitimate” mediators for Germany's rehabilitation. Western allied occupation authorities and overseas audiences viewed them, in contrast to men, as largely apolitical because they were women, and as objective witnesses because they were journalists. Through their autobiographical writings, both journalists situated themselves among the predominantly male US and German elites devoted to developing amicable relations between the two countries via soft-power diplomacy.

Dieser Aufsatz untersucht die transnationalen Auswirkungen zweier Tagebücher, die der beiden deutschen Journalistinnen Ruth Andreas-Friedrich und Ursula von Kardorff. Die Tagebücher sind auch im Hinblick auf deutsche Kriegserfahrungen, Widerstandsaktivitäten und – in geringerem Ausmaß – die Presse aufschlussreich. Beide Journalistinnen versuchten in den Nachkriegsjahren das westdeutsche Verhältnis zu dessen ehemaligen Feinden, insbesondere den Vereinigten Staaten, zu beeinflussen. In ihren autobiographischen Schriften präsentierten sie ein Bild von Deutschland, das selbst Opfer des Nationalsozialismus war, lieferten aber gleichzeitig ein frühes Eingeständnis der deutschen Verbrechen. Dadurch erreichten beide eine ausgewogene Schilderung, die sowohl vom amerikanischen als auch vom deutschen Publikum positiv aufgenommen wurde. Obwohl das, was Friedrich und Kardorff über die Facetten von Journalismus und Alltag im Dritten Reich zu sagen hatten, nicht einzigartig war, trug ihre doppelte Identität als Frauen und Journalistinnen dazu bei, dass man sie als „legitime“ Mediatoren der Rehabilitation Deutschlands ansah. Die westlichen Besatzungsbehörden und Leser in Übersee betrachteten die beiden im Gegensatz zu Männern als weitgehend apolitisch, weil sie Frauen waren, und als objektive Zeitzeugen, weil sie Journalistinnen waren. Durch ihre autobiographischen Schriften konnten sich die beiden Journalistinnen unter den überwiegend männlichen US-amerikanischen und deutschen Eliten etablieren, die mit Hilfe von soft-power Diplomatie freundschaftliche Beziehungen zwischen den beiden Ländern fördern wollten.

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Footnotes
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I would like to thank Andrew I. Port and the two anonymous reviewers for their thoughtful comments. I am also thankful to the Rosa Luxembourg writing group for their insightful feedback and support with this article: Willeke Sandler, Kira Thurman, Julie Ault, Jennifer Lynn, and Lauren Stokes. Thanks as well to Jacob Eder and Keir Waddington for their valuable feedback on early drafts of this article. A fellowship from the Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studies at the Freie Universität Berlin supported this research.

Footnotes
References
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1 Cressida Connelly, “She screamed for help, but her neighbours barricaded the door,” Telegraph, July 4, 2005.

2 Joseph Kanon, “My City of Ruins,” New York Times, Aug. 14, 2005.

3 Anonymous, A Woman in Berlin (London: Virago, 2005), xi. German poet and writer Hans Magnus Enzensberger described its initial reception in his foreword to the republished book.

4 Ibid.

5 Bundesarchiv Berlin (BArch), RKB76, Marta Hillers, Fragebogen—zur Bearbeitung des Aufnahmeantrages für die Reichsschrifttumskammer, Aug. 1938; Hillers's case report from the US Military Government, Intelligence Section.

6 Christina von Hodenberg has identified how a generation of postwar journalists was instrumental for the democratization process in Germany after 1945, but she does not isolate gender as a category of analysis. See von Hodenberg, Christina, Konsens und Krise. Eine Geschichte der westdeutschen Medienöffentlichkeit 1945–1973 (Göttingen: Wallstein, 2006). The small body of work that does address women journalists has focused primarily on the limitations women faced within the field; see Sitter, Carmen, Die eine Hälfte vergisst man(n) leicht! Zur Situation von Journalistinnen in Deutschland unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des 20. Jahrhunderts (Pfaffenweiler: Centaurus, 1998); Frei, Norbert and Schmitz, Johannes, Journalismus im Dritten Reich (Munich: C. H. Beck, 1989). For scholarship on the narrative of (West) German victimization and its connection to the Federal Republic's national identity, see Moeller, Robert, War Stories: The Search for a Usable Past in the Federal Republic of Germany (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001).

7 The biography and writing of Margret Boveri, one of the most prominent female journalists in the Third Reich, resonate with the themes discussed in this article. See Boveri, Margret, Verzweigungen: eine Autobiographie, ed. Johnson, Uwe (Munich: R. Piper, 1977); see also Moore, Michaela Hoenicke, “Heimat und Fremde. Das Verhältis zu Amerika im journalistischen Werk von Margret Boveri und Dolf Sternberger,” in Demokratiewunder: Transatlantische Mittler und die kulturelle Öffnung Westdeutschlands 1945–1970, ed. Bauerkamper, Arnd, Jaraush, Konrad, and Payk, Marcus M. (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2005), 218–52.

8 BArch, RKI7, Ruth Andreas-Friedrich, Fragebogen für die Reichsschrifttumskammer, 1936 and 1938; Führer, Karl Christian, “Pleasure, Practicality, and Propaganda: Popular Magazines in Nazi Germany, 1933–1939,” in Pleasure and Power in Nazi Germany, ed. Swett, Pamela E., Ross, Corey, and d'Almeida, Fabrice (Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011), 134.

9 She was well positioned to discuss Jewish suffering: Yad Vashem honored her as a “Righteous Among the Nations” in 2002 for her assistance to Jewish Germans. See http://www.yadvashem.org/yv/en/righteous/statistics/germany.pdf.

10 Institut für Zeitgeschichte (IfZ), Munich, ED ED348/2, undated letter from von Kardorff's mother to H., 1934.

11 Stargardt, Nicholas, The German War: A Nation Under Arms, 1939–1945 (New York: Basic Books, 2015), 266, 416.

12 The Fair Practice Guide for German Journalists: Wegweiser zum guten Journalismus (Munich: Office of Military Government for Bavaria [Information Control Division/Press Control Branch], 1947), 10.

13 Ibid.

14 See Grossmann, Atina, “Feminist Debates about Women and National Socialism,” Gender & History 3, no. 3 (1991): 350–58; Koonz, Claudia, Mothers in the Fatherland: Women, the Family, and Nazi Politics (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987); Bock, Gisela, Zwangssterilisation im Nationalsozialismus: Studien zur Rassenpolitik und Frauenpolitik (Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag, 1986).

15 Sitter, Die eine Hälfte, 21.

16 Dresler, Adolf, Die Frau im Journalismus (Munich: Knorr & Hirth, 1936), 11.

17 Wilhelm Weiss, “Die Frau im Schriftleiter Beruf,” Deutsche Presse, March 7, 1936.

18 Ross, Corey, Media and the Making of Modern Germany: Mass Communications, Society, and Politics from the Empire to the Third Reich (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), 375.

19 See Deborah Barton, “Writing for Dictatorship, Refashioning for Democracy,” PhD diss., University of Toronto, Toronto, 2015.

20 As quoted in Sitter, Die eine Hälfte, 218.

21 Ibid., 264.

22 Erwin J. Warkentin, “History of the Information Control Division, OMGUS, 1944–1946,” Memorial University of Newfoundland (http://www.erwinslist.com/index-en.html).

23 IfZ, 5/266–1/1, memorandum from Frances McFadden to Bob Hatch, July 26, 1945.

24 As quoted in Laville, Helen, Cold War Women: The International Activities of American Women's Organisations (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2002), 76.

25 Heineman, Elizabeth, “The Hour of the Woman: Memories of Germany's ‘Crisis Years' and West German National Identity,” American Historical Review 101, no. 2 (1996): 354–96.

26 Sitter, Die eine Hälfte, 251.

27 IfZ 5/236-2-10, OMGUS, itinerary of German journalists after Columbia seminars, n.d.

28 Berghahn, Volker, America and the Intellectual Cold Wars in Europe: Shepard Stone between Philanthropy, Academy, and Diplomacy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001).

29 BArch RK I7, Michael Jobbelson, US Civ. Chief of Research Section, report, Office of Military Government, Information Control Branch, US Army, June 2, 1947.

30 Kamerad Frau, Jan. 1, 1944. In February 1944, Kamerad Frau introduced the series “Sie sind schuld daran,” which aimed to show how great thinkers identified the ways in which the “actions of the Jews” had sought to crush the German people and culture throughout history.

31 Friedrich, Karin, Zeitfunken. Biographie einer Familie (Munich: C. H. Beck, 2000), 274–75.

32 Andreas-Friedrich, Ruth, Berlin Underground, 1938–1945, trans. Mussey, Barrow (New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1947).

33 See Jörg Drews's afterward in Andreas-Friedrich, Ruth, Der Schattenmann. Tagebuchaufzeichnungen 1938–1948 (Berlin: Suhrkamp, 2000), 570.

34 Friedrich, Zeitfunken, 268, 276.

35 Ossietzky, the publisher of the leftist paper Die Weltbühne, was arrested by the National Socialists in February 1933, and sent to Esterwegen concentration camp. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize two years later, but the Nazi regime refused to release him from the camp. He died in 1936. See Boldt, Werner, Carl von Ossietzky: Vorkämpfer der Demokratie (Hannover: Ossietzky, 2013).

36 Andreas-Friedrich, Der Schattenmann, 568–69.

37 Andreas-Friedrich, Ruth, Battleground Berlin: Diaries 1945–1948, trans. Boerresen, Anna (New York: Paragon, 1962), 86.

38 Ibid.

39 Andreas-Friedrich, Berlin Underground, xiii-xiv.

40 Ibid., 70.

41 See Stargardt, German War.

42 Andreas-Friedrich, Berlin Underground, 19.

43 Ibid., 191.

44 See, e.g., Theodor Schieder's five volumes on German expellees: Documents on the Expulsion of the German Population from the Territories East of the Oder-Neisse Line (Bonn: Federal Ministry for Expellees, Refugees, and War Victims, 1958–1961). Schieder's work focused on the violence inherent in the expulsion of millions of Germans from Eastern Europe, but it paid scant attention to German crimes. As Robert Moeller has written, the work amounted to a “scholarly seal of approval” for the narrative about German victimization. See Moeller, War Stories, 84. For more on the German expulsions, see Douglas, R. M., Orderly and Human: The Expulsion of the Germans after the Second World War (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2012).

45 Andreas-Friedrich, Berlin Underground, xiii.

46 Ibid., 78.

47 Ibid., 118.

48 Lutjens, Richard, “Vom Untertauchen: ‘U-Boote’ and der Berliner Alltag 1941–1945,” in Alltag im Holocaust, Jüdisches Leben im Großdeutschen Reich 1941–1945, ed. Löw, Andrea, Bergen, Doris L., and Hájková, Anna (Munich: Oldenburg, 2013), 57. See also Kershaw, Ian, Popular Opinion and Political Dissent in the Third Reich: Bavaria 1933–1945 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), 224–77.

49 Andreas-Friedrich, Berlin Underground, 134. See also Gellately, Robert, Backing Hitler: Consent and Coercion in Nazi Germany (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001).

50 Andreas-Friedrich, Berlin Underground, 91.

51 Pöttker, Host, Abgewehrte Vergangenheit. Beiträge zur deutschen Erinnerung an den Nationalsozialismus (Cologne: Herbet von Halem, 2005), 120–21.

52 Fair Practice Guide, 6.

53 IfZ 5/265-1/11, report on German prisoner reactions to the magazine HEUTE, n.d. For American efforts to reshape the German press, see Jessica Gienow-Hecht, Transmission Impossible: American Journalism as Cultural Diplomacy in Postwar Germany, 1945–1955 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1999).

54 Friedrich claimed that she had “deliberately refrained from any subsequent emendations.” See the foreword to Andreas-Friedrich, Berlin Underground.

55 The German edition was titled Der Schattenmann. Tagebuchaufzeichnungen 1938–1945. It was republished several times in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. See IfZ, ED348/9, letter from Max Tau, Aug. 9, 1962.

56 Andreas-Friedrich, Berlin Underground, xii.

57 Heberle, Rudolf, “Berlin Underground, 1938–1945,” Social Forces 26, no. 1 (1947): 109.

58 Welsh, Allen, “Berlin Underground,” Survey Graphic 36 (1947): 552.

59 de Groot, Emile, “Germany's Underground,” International Affairs 24, no. 1.(1948): 127–28. Allan Dulles served as the OSS Berlin station chief for six months after the war, and became the longest serving director of the CIA.

60 Richard Plant, “A Gallant Anti-Hitler Diary, Berlin Underground,” New York Times, June 1, 1947.

61 Rothfels, Hans, The German Opposition to Hitler, An Appraisal (Hinsdale: H. Regnery, 1948), 33.

62 See Goedde, Petra, GIs and Germans: Culture, Gender, and Foreign Relations, 1945–1949 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2003); see also Höhn, Maria, GIs and Fräuleins: The German-American Encounter in 1950s West Germany (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002).

63 See Moore, Michaela Hoenicke, Know your Enemy: The American Debate on Nazism, 1933–1945 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010).

64 Andreas-Friedrich, Ruth, Berlin Underground (London: Latimer House, 1948). See The Big Lift, dir. George Seaton, April 1950. The film depicts the narrative of German victimization and US receptiveness to that idea.

65 See, e.g., “Angst vor den Möbeln unserer Zeit,” Süddeutsche Zeitung, Jan. 13, 1953; IfZ Munich, ED348/5, Kardorff Nachlass. She also wrote the popular column “Durch meine Brille” for the Münchner Abendzeitung.

66 See, e.g., Ursula von Kardorff, “Die Frau von dreißig Jahren,” Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung [Oct. 1944]; idem, “Frauen und nicht Soldat: Die Luftwaffe stellt Flakwaffenhelferinnen ein,”Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, June 6, 1944.

67 von Harbou, Knud, Als Deutschland seine Seele retten wollte: Die Süddeutsche Zeitung in den Gründerjahren nach 1945 (Munich: DTV, 2015).

68 See, e.g., IfZ ED348/5, letter from Kardorff to Krellmann, March 9 [1947].

69 Franz Joseph Schöningh, “Lohnt es sich noch zu leben?,” Süddeutsche Zeitung, Oct. 6, 1945.

70 Schöningh, as quoted in von Harbou, Knud, Wege und Abwege. Franz Josef Schöningh, der Mitbegründer der Süddeutschen Zeitung. Eine Biografie (Munich: Allitera, 2013), 234.

71 IfZ, ED348/31, letter from Schöningh to Kardorff, April 6, 1946.

72 IfZ ED348/520, Kardorff, “Schluss-Stimmung in Nürnberg,” Stuttgarter Zeitung, n.d.

73 IfZ ED348/6, letter from Kardorff to Kläre, Aug. 5, 1946.

74 IfZ ED348/6, letter from Kardorff to Hans Wolfgang Schwerin, Nov. 12, 1948.

75 See the foreword to von Kardorff, Ursula, Diary of a Nightmare: Berlin 1942–1945, trans. Butler, Ewan (New York: The John Day Company, 1966).

76 IfZ ED348/6, letter from Kardorff to Charlotte von der Schulenburg, Aug. 20, 1947.

77 IfZ ED348/6, letter from Kardorff to Guy Wint, May 1946.

78 IfZ ED348/6, letter from Kardorff to Charlotte von der Schulenburg, Aug. 20, 1947.

79 IfZ ED348/6, letter from Kardorff to Hans Wolfgang Schwerin, April 12, 1948.

80 IfZ ED348/7, letter from Deutscher Verlag, Nov. 19, 1948.

81 See Ursula von Kardorff's report on Berliner Aufzeichnungen in IfZ ED348/7.

82 Kardorff, Diary of a Nightmare, 228.

83 Ibid., 223–24.

84 IfZ ED348/5, letter from Kardorff to Peter Boyle, Sept. 29, 1946; IfZ ED348/13, Ursula von Kardorff, “Tagebuch: Auszüge aus Nürnberg,” July 8, 1946. Also see Ursula von Kardorff, “Speer—ein Mann mit Verantwortung,” Wiesbadener Kurier, June 25, 1946.

85 IfZ ED348/1, report from the Office of Military Government for Bavaria, Press Control Section, May 10, 1946.

86 IfZ ED348/6, letter from Kardorff to Charlotte von der Schulenburg, Aug. 20, 1947. In 1948, she thanked Hans Wolfgang Schwerin for his positive feedback on the manuscript; in May 1957, former party member and author Erhardt Kästner wrote to thank Kardorff for sending him an excerpt from her book, and to assure her of its merit. See IfZ ED348/6, letter from Kardorff to Schwerin, April 12, 1948; ED348/5, letter from Kästner to Kardorff, May 5, 1957.

87 Barbara Szerfozo, “Warring Narratives: The Diaries and Memoirs of Lore Walb, Ursula von Kardorff, and Margret Boveri” (PhD diss., Georgetown University, 2002), 155. Kardorff may have been able to write more openly in her diary after the war, but she also left out important biographical facts in Berliner Aufzeichnungen, such as her work for Der Angriff and her brother Klaus's membership in the SA.

88 IfZ 348/6, letter from Kardorff to Guy Wint, Nov. 13, n.d.

89 Kardorff, Diary of a Nightmare, 193–94. In the postwar years, a number of women journalists claimed that their focus on soft news meant that they had not been compromised by Nazism.

90 Ibid., 46.

91 IfZ ED348/9, letter from Goldmann, Dec. 12, 1962.

92 IfZ ED348/9, letter from Kardorff to Goldmann, Dec. 13, 1962.

93 Ibid.

94 Frei and Schmitz, Journalismus im Dritten Reich, 169.

95 IfZ ED348/9, letter from Goldmann to Kardorff, Dec. 17, 1962.

96 Kardorff, Diary of a Nightmare, 91.

97 Ibid., 247.

98 Kardorff, Berliner Aufzeichnungen, 361.

99 Kardorff, Diary of a Nightmare, 228.

100 Ibid., 229–30. For German views on Allied questionnaires and the experience of denazification, see, e.g., von Salomon, Ernst, Der Fragebogen (Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1951).

101 IfZ ED348/9, letter from Kardorff to von Garlowitz, Aug. 23, 1962.

102 See Moeller, War Stories.

103 As quoted in Browning, Christopher R., “Spanning a Career: Three Editions of Raul Hilberg's Destruction of the European Jews,” in Lessons and Legacies, Vol. VIII, ed. Bergen, Doris (Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 2008), 191.

104 See Tobin, Patrick, “No Time for ‘Old Fighters': Postwar West Germany and the Origins of the 1958 Ulm Einsatzkommando Trial,” Central European History 44, no. 4 (2011): 684710.

105 See Wittmann, Rebecca, Beyond Justice: The Auschwitz Trial (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005); Pendas, Devin O., The Frankfurt Auschwitz Trial, 1963–1965: Genocide, History, and the Limits of the Law (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006).

106 Marion von Dönhoff was a Junker from East Prussia who participated indirectly in the July 20 plot. She fled her home in January 1945 ahead of the Red Army. After the war, she became one of Germany's most prominent female journalists. See von Dönhoff, Marion, Namen, die keiner mehr nennt: Ostpreussen–Menschen und Geschichte (Düsseldorf: Diederichs, 1962). See also Berghahn, Volker, Journalists between Hitler and Adenauer: From Inner Emigration to the Moral Reconstruction of West Germany (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2018).

107 IfZ ED348/9, letter from Max Tau, Aug. 9, 1962.

108 IfZ ED348/31, Josef Halperin, “Berliner Aufzeichnungen, 1942–1945,” Neue Zürcher Zeitung, Sept. 12, 1962.

109 IfZ ED348/9, Karl Bergmann, letter to Die Welt, Sept. 4, 1962.

110 IfZ ED348/9, letter from von Rutkowski to Kardorff, Feb. 18, 1962.

111 IfZ, ED348/5, anon., letter to Kardorff, Nov. 12, 1961.

112 Kirkus Review, April 20, 1966.

113 Saturday Review, May 21, 1966.

114 IfZ ED348/31, “Diary of a Nightmare: Berlin, 1942–1945,” The New Yorker, n.d.

115 IfZ ED348/31, Bernardine Kielty, “Diary of a Nightmare: Berlin, 1942–1945,” Book of the Month Club News, Sept. 1, 1966.

116 IfZ ED348/31, “Diary of a Nightmare,” Wall Street Journal, June 13, 1966.

117Diary of a Nightmare by Ursula von Kardorff, ”Booklist 63, no. 91 (1966).

118 Rothfels, German Opposition to Hitler, 33.

119 In addition to the works already cited, see, e.g., MacDonogh, Giles, After the Reich: The Brutal History of the Allied Occupation (New York: Basic Books, 2007); Beevor, Antony, The Fall of Berlin, 1945 (New York: Penguin, 2003); Beck, Earl R., Under the Bombs: The German Homefront 1942–1945 (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1986); Garbarini, Alexandra, Numbered Days: Diaries and the Holocaust (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2006).

120 See Moeller, War Stories; Heineman, “The Hour of the Woman.”

I would like to thank Andrew I. Port and the two anonymous reviewers for their thoughtful comments. I am also thankful to the Rosa Luxembourg writing group for their insightful feedback and support with this article: Willeke Sandler, Kira Thurman, Julie Ault, Jennifer Lynn, and Lauren Stokes. Thanks as well to Jacob Eder and Keir Waddington for their valuable feedback on early drafts of this article. A fellowship from the Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studies at the Freie Universität Berlin supported this research.

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