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Politics in C Minor: The CDU/CSU between Germany and Europe since the Secular Sixties

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 March 2009


Ronald J. Granieri
Affiliation:
University of Pennsylvania

Abstract

In 1962, the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) faced an uncertain future. The governing party within the Federal Republic of Germany since the state's founding in 1949 (along with its Bavarian partner, the Christian Social Union, known collectively as the CDU/CSU or Union), the CDU had endured a bruising election campaign through the summer of 1961. The combination of a dynamic young Social Democratic challenger, Willy Brandt, and the building of the Berlin Wall had exposed frustration with the leadership style of octogenarian Chancellor and CDU Chair Konrad Adenauer, and cost the Union its absolute majority in the Bundestag. Electoral disappointment was followed by protracted coalition negotiations with the liberal Free Democratic Party (FDP), which nearly doubled its vote totals by promising voters a coalition “with the Union but without Adenauer.” The coalition negotiations dragged on well into late autumn and exposed internal divisions. Adenauer, the only chancellor the Federal Republic had ever known, had been forced to agree to retire before 1965 to allow his successor to prepare for the next campaign.


Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Conference Group for Central European History of the American Historical Association 2009

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References

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Ibid.

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23 Dehler made this comment to the Yugoslavian magazine Politica, prompting a swift response from Adenauer. See Hans Kroll, Ambassador in Belgrade, to the Foreign Office, November 20, 1954, and Adenauer's telegram to Dehler, November 22, 1954, Stiftung-Bundeskanzler-Adenauer-Haus, Rhöndorf (StBKAH), 12/32, 108–115; as well as Adenauer to Dehler, November 27, 1954, Mensing, Hans-Peter, ed., Konrad Adenauer Rhöndorfer Ausgabe, Briefe 1953–1955 (Berlin: Siedler Verlag, 1995), 186187, 189–192Google Scholar.

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26 The literature on secularization/modernization in postwar Europe, especially with regard to rising youth culture, is enormous. For recent important works, see Ruff, Mark Edward, The Wayward Flock: Catholic Youth in Postwar West Germany, 1945–1965 (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2005)Google Scholar; Schildt, Axel and Siegfried, Detlef, eds., Between Marx and Coca-Cola: Youth Cultures in Changing European Societies (New York: Berghahn Books, 2006)Google Scholar; Schildt, Axel, Siegfried, Detlef, and Lammers, Karl Christian, eds., Dynamische Zeiten. Die 60er Jahren in den beiden deutschen Gesellschaften (Hamburg: Christians, 2000)Google Scholar; and Schildt, Axel and Sywottek, Arnold, eds., Modernisierung im Wiederaufbau. Die westdeutsche Gesellschaft der 50er Jahre (Bonn: Dietz Verlag, 1993)Google Scholar.

27 Letter from German Catholic Bishops to the faithful, printed in Kirchlicher Anzeiger für die Erzdiözese Köln 97, no. 25 (August 30, 1957). Archbishop Cardinal Frings of Cologne was head of the Bishop's Conference. ACDP CDU Election Files 1957, 07-003-003/1.

28 Repgen, Konrad, “Finis Germaniae. Untergang Deutschlands durch einen SPD-Wahlsieg 1957?” in Konrad Adenauer und seine Zeit, ed. Blumenwitz, Dieter, Gotto, Klaus, Maier, Hans et al. , 2 vols. (Stuttgart: DVA, 1976), vol. II, 294315Google Scholar.

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30 Adenauer to Krone, October 8, 1960. ACDP NL Heinrich Krone, 01-028-008/1. Krone returned the letter to Adenauer the same day, refusing to respond to it. Kleinmann, ed., Krone Diary I, 451–452 (October 8, 1960).

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41 Ibid., 218 (Diary Entry for June 3, 1963). According to Osterheld, Adenauer made the last remark under his breath, but both the translator and the ambassador heard it.

Ibid.

42 Ibid., 244 and 244 n. See also Schwarz, Hans-Peter, Adenauer. Der Staatsmann, 1952–1967 (Stuttgart: DVA, 1991), 605609Google Scholar, and 856–857. For the idea of writing to John, see Kleinmann, ed., Krone Diary I, 428 (June 19, 1960).

Ibid.

43 Adenauer remarks before the CDU-Bundesvorstand, March 14, 1963, Buchstab, ed., “Stetigkeit,” 409–410.

44 Kleinmann, ed., Krone Diary II, 183 (April 13, 1963); 271–272 (March 6, 1964); 273 (March 8, 1964); and 374 (May 19, 1965).

45 Ibid., 410 (September 27, 1965).

Ibid.

46 Although the nature of the following discussion is rather different, any use of “musical” terminology to discuss political developments must pay respect to Carl Schorske's article, “Politics in a New Key: An Austrian Trio,” in his landmark book, Fin de Siècle Vienna: Politics and Culture (New York: Vintage Books, 1981).

47 Kleinmann, ed., Krone Diary II, 56 (April 8, 1962).

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49 Kleinmann, ed., Krone Diary II, 298 (June 8, 1964). See also Adenauer to Barzel, May 21, 1964, StBKAH III/35 [95], with copies to several other CDU members inviting them to an upcoming meeting with Gaullist deputies at St. Cloud. See also Schreiner, Reinhard, “Die Europapolitik der CDU im Hinblick auf Frankreich und den Mouvement Républicain Populaire (MRP) 1945–1966,” Historisch-Politische Mitteilungen 1 (1994): 183196CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

50 Granieri, Ambivalent Alliance, 191–227.

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52 For a discussion of Baron Karl Theodor zu Guttenberg, see his autobiographical sketch, Fußnoten (Stuttgart: Seewald Verlag, 1971); as well as Granieri, “Thou shalt.”

53 Prof. Dr. Wilhelm Hahn to Schröder, August 13, 1966. ACDP NL Schröder, 01-483-100/2. Interestingly, Hahn urged Schröder to seek a compromise with Strauß to head off Guttenberg and his allies.

54 See Oskar Blank to Schröder, September 6, 1970, which accuses the Union and “your Baron” of pursuing a Catholic agenda and urges Schröder to form a Protestant Party. ACDP NL Schröder 01-483-164/2.

55 Kleinmann, ed., Krone Diary II, 316 (July 21, 1964). See also Poppinga, Anneliese, Meine Erinnerungen an Konrad Adenauer (Stuttgart: DVA, 1970), 106108Google Scholar.

56 Guttenberg to Adenauer, March 4, 1964. StBKAH II/36, 475–476.

57 De Gaulle, press conference of September 5, 1960. Quoted in Calleo, David, Europe's Future: The Grand Alternatives (New York: Norton, 1967), 90Google Scholar. Here and below, see also Bozo, Two Strategies for Europe; and Gladwyn, Lord, De Gaulle's Europe, or Why the General Says No (London: Secker and Warburg, 1969)Google Scholar.

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63 Repgen, “Finis Germaniae.”

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72 van Laak, Dirk, “From the Conservative Revolution to Technocratic Conservatism,” in German Ideologies since 1945, ed. Müller, Jan-Werner (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), 147160CrossRefGoogle Scholar, quote on 151.

73 Strauß wrote a preface to the German version of The American Challenge, and Servan-Schreiber returned the favor with a preface to Strauß's Challenge and Response. Servan-Schreiber, Jean-Jacques, Die Amerikanische Herausforderung (Hamburg: Hoffmann und Campe, 1968)Google Scholar. Strauß, Franz Josef, Challenge and Response: A Program for Europe (New York: Athenaeum, 1969)Google Scholar.

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75 Bischoff, Franz Josef Strauß, 124–130. See also the letter to Erhard on July 6, 1966, and Strauß, Challenge and Response.

76 J. C. Roussel to Strauß, March 17, 1970, and Strauß to Roussel, May 22, 1970. ACSP NL FJS Büro Bonn 3634. See also “Wir haben den Fuß in der Tür,” Der Spiegel 20 (May 9, 1977), 115–118. For an excellent discussion of Bavarian economic development, see Milosch, Mark S., Modernizing Bavaria: The Politics of Franz Josef Strauss and the CSU, 1949–1969 (New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2006)Google Scholar. See also Finger, Franz Josef Strauß, 235–236, 247–248, and 418–420.

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78 Conway, Martin, “The Age of Christian Democracy: The Frontiers of Success and Failure,” in European Christian Democracy, ed. Kselman, and Buttigieg, , 4367Google Scholar. For a contemporary view, see Gross, Johannes, “Der Niedergang der christlichen Demokratie,” Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, July 18, 1973Google Scholar. Clipping in ACDP NL von Hassel, 01-157-015/2.

79 Ahonen, After the Expulsion.

80 See Dregger, Alfred, “Auf dem Weg zur gemeinsamen Sicherheit,” Rheinischer Merkur, January 17, 1975, 3334Google Scholar, in which he calls for a European defense identity to create a more independent NATO. Enclosed in Dregger to Strauß, February 7, 1975. See also Dregger to Manfred Wörner, September 23, 1975. ACSP NL FJS Büro Bonn 3510.

81 Dregger to Kai-Uwe von Hassel, November 18, 1971. ACDP NL von Hassel, 01-157-167/2.

82 Bösch, Frank, Macht und Machtverlust. Die Geschichte der CDU (Stuttgart: DVA, 2002), especially 191239Google Scholar.

83 Kai-Uwe von Hassel to Helmut Kohl, June 7, 1977, copy in ACSP NL Strauß Büro Bonn 3530; Wegener Vermerk for Hassel, May 12, 1977, ACDP NL Hassel 01-157-145/1. In general, see Jansen, Thomas, The European People's Party (New York: St. Martin's, 1999)Google Scholar, and Johansson, Karl Magnus, Transnational Party Alliances: Analyzing the Hard-Won Alliance between Conservatives and Christian Democrats in the European Parliament (Lund: Lund University Press, 1997)Google Scholar.

84 For an early attempt to place Kohl historically, with a liberal seasoning of hagiography, see Vogel, Bernhard, ed., Ein Leben für Deutschland und Europa. Helmut Kohl—Stationen eines Lebens (Düsseldorf: Droste Verlag, 2005)Google Scholar.

85 For a discussion of the philosophical problem of Europe's future, see Morgan, Glyn, The Idea of a European Superstate: Public Justification and European Integration (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005)Google Scholar.

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