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Nazi Germany's Propaganda Aimed at Arabs and Muslims During World War II and the Holocaust: Old Themes, New Archival Findings

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 November 2009


Jeffrey Herf
Affiliation:
University of Maryland, College Park
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Extract

During World War II and the Holocaust, the Nazi regime engaged in an intensive effort to appeal to Arabs and Muslims in the Middle East and North Africa. It did so by presenting the Nazi regime as a champion of secular anti-imperialism, especially against Britain, as well as by a selective appropriation and reception of the traditions of Islam in ways that suggested their compatibility with the ideology of National Socialism. This article and the larger project from which it comes draw on recent archival findings that make it possible to expand on the knowledge of Nazi Germany's efforts in this region that has already been presented in a substantial scholarship. This essay pushes the history of Nazism beyond its Eurocentric limits while pointing to the European dimensions of Arabic and Islamic radicalism of the mid-twentieth century. On shortwave radio and in printed items distributed in the millions, Nazi Germany's Arabic language propaganda leapt across the seemingly insurmountable barriers created by its own ideology of Aryan racial superiority. From fall 1939 to March 1945, the Nazi regime broadcast shortwave Arabic programs to the Middle East and North Africa seven days and nights a week. Though the broadcasts were well known at the time, the preponderance of its print and radio propaganda has not previously been documented and examined nor has it entered into the intellectual, cultural, and political history of the Nazi regime during World War II and the Holocaust. In light of new archival findings, we are now able to present a full picture of the wartime propaganda barrage in the course of which officials of the Nazi regime worked with pro-Nazi Arab exiles in Berlin to adapt general propaganda themes aimed at its German and European audiences to the religious traditions of Islam and the regional and local political realities of the Middle East and North Africa. This adaptation was the product of a political and ideological collaboration between officials of the Nazi regime, especially in its Foreign Ministry but also of its intelligence services, the Propaganda Ministry, and the SS on the one hand, and pro-Nazi Arab exiles in wartime Berlin on the other. It drew on a confluence of perceived shared political interests and ideological passions, as well as on a cultural fusion, borrowing and interacting between Nazi ideology and certain strains of Arab nationalism and Islamic religious traditions. It was an important chapter in the political, intellectual, and cultural history of Nazism during World War II and comprises a chapter in the history of radical Islamist ideology and politics.


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Copyright © Conference Group for Central European History of the American Historical Association 2009

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References

1 This article draws on my forthcoming study, Nazi Propaganda for the Arab World, with Yale University Press in fall 2009. It also builds on Herf, Jeffrey, The Jewish Enemy: Nazi Propaganda During World War II and the Holocaust (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

2 See the classic study by Hirszowicz, Lukasz, The Third Reich and the Arab East (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul; Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1966)Google Scholar; and the recent important work by Klaus Mallmann, Michael and Cuppers, Martin, Halbmond und Hakenkreuz. Das Dritte Reich, die Araber und Palästina (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 2006)Google Scholar. Also see Robert Lewis Melka, “The Axis and the Middle East: 1930–1945” (unpublished Ph.D. diss., University of Minnesota, 1966); Nicosia, Francis R., The Third Reich and the Palestine Question (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1999)Google Scholar; Schröder, Josef, “Die Beziehungen der Achsenmächte zur Arabischen Welt,” in Hitler, Deutschland und die Mächte. Materialien zur Außenpolitik des Dritten Reiches, ed. Funke, Manfred (Düsseldorf: Droste Verlag, 1976), 365382Google Scholar; Schröder, Philip Bernd, Deutschland in der Mittlere Osten im Zweiten Weltkrieg (Göttingen: Musterschmidt, 1975)Google Scholar; Schwanitz, Wolfgang, Germany and the Middle East, 1871–1945 (Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2004)Google Scholar; and Tillmann, Heinz, Deutschlands Araberpolitik im Zweiten Weltkrieg (Berlin: Deutsche Verlag der Wissenschaften, 1965)Google Scholar.

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5 For a recent discussion of the impact of Nazism on the Middle East, see Küntzel, Matthias, Jihad and Jew-Hatred: Islamism, Nazism, and the Roots of 9/11, trans. Meade, Colin (New York: Telos Press, 2007)Google Scholar. Also see Lewis, Bernard, Semites and Anti-Semites: An Inquiry into Conflict and Prejudice (New York: W. W. Norton, 1986 and 1999)Google Scholar. On the anti-Semitic traditions within the religion of Islam, see Bostom, Andrew G., ed., The Legacy of Islamic Antisemitism: From Sacred Texts to Solemn History (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2008)Google Scholar.

6 Herf, Jeffrey, Reactionary Modernism: Technology, Culture, and Politics in Weimar and the Third Reich (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1984)Google Scholar.

7 For recent examples, see Weinberg, Gerhard, A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994)Google Scholar; and Boog, Horst et al. , The Global War: Widening of the Conflict into a World War and the Shift of the Initiative, 1941–1943, trans. Osers, Ewald (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001)Google Scholar. The German original is Boog, Horst et al. , Das Deutsche Reich und der Zweite Weltkrieg. Vol. 6, Der Globale Krieg: Die Ausweitung zum Weltkrieg und der Wechsel der Initiative, 1941–1943 (Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1990)Google Scholar.

8 Tillmann, Deutschlands Araberpolitik im Zweiten Weltkrieg.

9 Hirszowicz, The Third Reich and the Arab East.

10 Mallmann and Cuppers, Halbmond und Hakenkreuz. Also see Mallmann, Klaus Michael and Cuppers, Martin, “‘Elimination of the Jewish National Home in Palestine’: The Einsatzkommando of the Panzer Army Africa, 1942,” Yad Vashem Studies 35, no. 1 (2007): 111141Google Scholar.

11 See Hurewitz, J. C., The Struggle for Palestine (New York: Schocken Books, 1976)Google Scholar; Morris, Benny, Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881–2001 (New York: Vintage, 1999, 2001), 128135Google Scholar; and Porath, Yehoshua, The Palestinian Arab National Movement: From Riots to Rebellion, Volume Two, 1929–1939 (London and Totowa, NJ: Frank Cass, 1977)Google Scholar. On Britain and Jewish emigration to Palestine, see Wasserstein, Bernard, Britain and the Jews of Europe, 1939–1945, 2nd ed. (London and New York: Leicester University Press, 1999)Google Scholar.

12 Friling, Tuvia, Arrows in the Dark: David Ben-Gurion, the Yishuv Leadership, and Rescue Attempts during the Holocaust, trans. Cummings, Ora (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 2005), 6465Google Scholar. In a speech in Palestine in 1942, Ben Gurion said, “The Nazis are not far away, but we are being threatened not only by Rommel in North Africa. We are also in danger of invasion from Syria and even Iraq and Turkey,” 64. Robert Satloff has recently described policies of anti-Semitic persecution and the establishment of harsh labor camps during the North Africa occupation by Nazi Germany, Vichy France, and Fascist Italy. Yet as terrible as these policies were, the Nazis and their allies were unable to implement plans to engage in mass murder either in the region or via deportation to death camps in Europe. See Satloff, Robert, Among the Righteous: Lost Stories from the Long Reach of the Holocaust into Arab Lands (New York: Public Affairs, 2006)Google Scholar. In this sense, thanks to Allied military victories, the Holocaust was not extended to the Middle East.

13 On Haj Amin el-Husseini and Nazi Germany, see Gensicke, Klaus, Der Mufti von Jerusalem und die Nationalsozialisten. Eine politische Biographie Amin el-Husseinis (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 2007)Google Scholar; Elpeleg, Zvi, The Grand Mufti: Haj Amin al-Hussaini, Founder of the Palestinian National Movement, trans. Harvey, David, ed. Himelstein, Shmuel (London: Frank Cass, 1993)Google Scholar; and Schechtman, Joseph B., The Mufti and the Führer: The Rise and Fall of Haj Amin el-Husseini (New York: Thomas Yoseloff, 1965)Google Scholar; and Luca, Anthony De, “Der Grossmufti’ in Berlin: The Politics of Collaboration,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 10, no. 1 (February 1979): 125138CrossRefGoogle Scholar. Husseini's major speeches in wartime Berlin have been published in German. See Höpp, Gerhard, ed., Mufti-Papiere. Briefe, Memoranden, Reden und Aufrufe Amīn al-usainīs aus dem Exil 1940-1945 (Berlin: Schwarz, 2001)Google Scholar. See my examination of some of the texts in Herf, Jewish Enemy, 172–174, 179–180, and 243–244. Also see Mattar, Philip, The Mufti of Jerusalem (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988)Google Scholar.

14 One well-known announcer was Yunus Bahri. He has written a memoir in Arabic of his years in Berlin. See Bahri, Yunus, Hunā Birlīn, ayy al-Arab (Beirut: Dār al-Nashr lil-Jāmi Tīyīn, 1955)Google Scholar.

15 On the central role of the German Foreign Ministry in producing foreign-language propaganda, see Longerich, Peter, Propagandisten im Krieg. Die Presseabteilung des Auswärtigen Amtes unter Ribbentrop (Munich: R. Oldenbourg, 1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

16 Anne H. Fuller, “Memorandum on Radio Reception in the Near East and India” (August 18, 1941), National Archives and Record Administration, College Park (hereafter NARA), Record Group (hereafter RG) 208, Records of the Office of War Information, Informational Files on the Near East, 1941–1946, Box 417.

17 See “Egypt” and “Libya,” World Survey of Education, vol. 1 (Paris: UNESCO, 1955), 216 and 424. On literacy in Palestine, see Ayalon, Ami, Reading Palestine: Printing and Literacy, 1900–1948 (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2004), 1617Google Scholar. By contrast, the literacy rates for Christians in Palestine in 1947 were eighty-five percent for men and sixty-five percent for women.

18 On the courier network, see “Enemy Courier Systems in Turkey and Syria,” NARA, RG 226, Records of the Office of Strategic Services, Cairo SI/X-2, Box 4.

19 Alexander Kirk, “Telegram Sent, September 13, 1941, 8 p.m., to Department of State from Cairo Legation, Number 1361,” 1–3, NARA RG 84, Foreign Service Posts of the U.S. Department of State (hereafter RG 84), Cairo Legation and Embassy, Secret and Confidential General Records, 1939, 1941–1947, 1941, 820.02-830, Box 4, Folder 820.02 1941.

20 On some examples of the distribution of the Kirk dispatches to other agencies of the United States government, see Aronson, Shlomo, “Dimensions of Allied Response to Hitler's ‘Jewish Politics’ and the Deepening of the Trap,” in Aronson, Hitler, the Allies, and the Jews (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 5464CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

21 Hitler, Adolf, Mein Kampf, trans. Mannheim, Ralph (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1943 and 1971), 658659Google Scholar.

22 On these discussions, see “Zugehörigkeit der Ägypter, Iraker, Iraner, Perser und Türken zur arischen Rasse, Bd. 1, 1935–1936,” Politisches Archive des Auswärtiges Amt (Berlin) R99173.

23 “Arbeitsabkommen zwischen dem Auswärtigen Amt und dem Reichsministerium für Volksaufklärung und Propaganda,” NARA, Records of the German Foreign Ministry Received by the Department of State, Microcopy No. T120, Roll 396, frames 304653–304666. On Ribbentrop, the Foreign Ministry, and Nazi propaganda, see Longerich, Propagandisten im Krieg.

24 Schipps, Werner, Wortschlacht im Äther. Der deutsche Auslandsrundfunk im Zweiten Weltkrieg (Berlin: Haude and Spenersche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1971), 16Google Scholar.

25 Ibid., 25.

Ibid.

26 Ibid., 58.

Ibid.

27 “Auswärtiges Amt, Politische Abteilung,” PAAA R67478 Referat Ru Pers. Ru HS, Bd. 3: Haushalt, Personal (Handakte Bartsch), 1939–1943, Bde. 3–4.

28 “Haushaltsvoranschlag der Rundfunkpolitische Abteilung des Auswärtigen Amtes vom 1.4.1942 bis 31.3.1943, PAAA Rundfunkpolitische Abteilung, R67477 Referat Ru Pers. Ru HS, Bd. 1: Verwaltung Organisation 1941–1943, Bde. 2–3.

29 “Anlage 1: Zahlenmäßige Übersicht über den Inlandspersonalbestand der Abteilung Ru., Stand vom 1.9.1942,” PAAA Rundfunkpolitische Abteilung, R67477 Referat Ru Pers. Ru HS, Bd. 1: Verwaltung Organisation 1941–1943, Bde. 2–3.

30 “Personalbestand der Rundfunkpolitische Abteilung (Berlin, August 14, 1943), PAAA Rundfunkpolitische Abteilung, R67476 Referat Ru Pers. Ru HS, Bd. 1: Verwaltung Organisation 1939–1945, Bde. 1–2.

31 “Übersicht über die Arbeitsgebiete der Rundfunkpolitischen Abteilung und ihrer Referat, Anlage 6,” PAAA Rundfunkpolitische Abteilung, R67477 Referat Ru Pers. Ru HS, Bd. 1: Verwaltung Organisation 1941–1943, Bde. 2–3. The leading officials in the Foreign Ministry dealing with the Middle East included Erwin Ettel, Fritz Grobba, Werner Otto von Hentig, Wilhelm Melchers, Carl Prüfer, and Ernst Woermann.

32 “Abteilung Ru, Anlage 1a,” R67477 Referat Ru Pers. Ru HS, Bd. 1: Verwaltung Organisation 1941–1943, Bde. 2–3; and “Anlage 1a, Abteilung Ru, Zahlenmäßige Übersicht über den Inlandspersonalbestand der Abteilung Ru., Stand vom 1.9.1942,” PAAA Rundfunkpolitische Abteilung, R67477 Referat Ru Pers. Ru HS, Bd. 1: Verwaltung Organisation 1941–1943, Bde. 2–3.

33 Ibid. In 1948, Munzel completed a doctoral dissertation at the University of Erlangen. He returned to service in the West German Foreign Office in the 1950s. See Hanisch, Ludmila, Die Nachfolger der Exegeten. Deutschsprachige Erforschung des Vorderen Orients in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2003), 199Google Scholar.

Ibid.

34 “Übersicht über die Arbeitsgebiete der rundfunkpolitischen Abteilung und ihrer Referat, Ref. VII Orient,” 4; and “Rundfunkabteilung Inland, Personalstand 1.9.1942, Referat VII Orient,” 16, PAAA Rundfunkpolitische Abteilung, R67477 Referat Ru Pers. Ru HS, Bd. 1: Verwaltung Organisation 1941–1943, Bde. 2–3. Personnel of the Orient office in the Foreign Ministry's Rundfunkpolitischen Abteilung. Also see Munzel, Kurt, Ägyptischer-arabischer Sprachführer (Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1958 and 1983)Google Scholar.

35 Kult.R.Ref. VIII (VII) (Orient) Mn/P/B Kultureller Talk vom 3. Dezember 1940, “Ein Blatt über die Besetzung der Englander in Ägypten,” Berlin (December 3, 1940), Bundesarchiv Berlin (BAB), R901 Auswärtiges Amt, R73039 Rundfunkabteilung, Ref. VIII Arabische und Iranische Sendungen, vorl. 39, Dez. 1940–Jan. 1941, 2.

36 Ibid., 2.

Ibid.

37 Herf, , Reactionary Modernism (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1984)Google Scholar.

38 Bundesarchiv Berlin, [Lichterfelde] (BAB) R901 Auswärtiges Amt, R73039 Rundfunkabteilung, Ref. VIII Arabische und Iranische Sendungen, vorl. 39, Dez. 1940–Jan. 1941, Kult.R, Ref. VIII (Orient), Mu/Scha “Religiöser Wochentalk vom 12. Dez. 1940 (arabisch) Die Freigebigkeit,” broadcast on December 12, 1940, 14–16. Although most of the Division of Radio Policy files are Political Archive of the German Foreign Ministry, these files from 1940–1941 are in the Bundesarchiv in Lichterfelde.

39 “Zur Regierungserklärung für die Araber,” Talk vom 12. Dezember 1940 (arabisch), (BAB) R901 Auswärtiges Amt, R73039 Rundfunkabteilung, Ref. VIII Arabische und Iranische Sendungen, vorl. 39, Dez. 1940–Jan. 1941, Kult.R, Ref. VIII (Orient), Mu/Scha, 11–13.

Ibid.

41 On Haj Amin al-Husseini and Rashid Ali el Khilani in Berlin, see Elpeleg, The Grand Mufti; Gensicke, Der Mufti von Jerusalem und die Nationalsozialisten; Mallmann and Cuppers, Halbmond und Hakenkreuz, 105–120; and Hirszowicz, The Third Reich and the Arab East, 211–228.

42 See Longerich, Propagandisten im Krieg.

43 “No. 515, Memorandum by an Official of the Foreign Minister's Secretariat, Record of the Conversation between the Führer and the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem on November 28, 1941, in the Presence of Reich Foreign Minister and Minster Grobba in Berlin,” Berlin (November 30, 1941), Documents on German Foreign Policy (DGFP) Series D (1937–1945) Volume XIII, The War Years, June 23–December 11, 1941 (Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1949–1984), 881–882, 884. On the meeting, see Hirszowicz, The Third Reich and the Arab East, 218–221; and Gensicke, Der Mufti von Jerusalem und die Nationalsozialisten, 60–63.

44 Friling in Arrows in the Dark observes that Ben-Gurion was fully aware of the threat. According to the language of the Genocide Convention adopted by the United Nations after World War II, some of the resulting broadcasts would meet its definition of “incitement” and could thus be described as part of the crime of genocide. Clause 3 in Article 3 of the “Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide” includes “direct and public incitement to commit genocide” as acts that should be punishable. See http://www.hrweb.org/legal/genocide.html. While the Reich Press Chief, Otto Dietrich, was tried and convicted of “crimes against humanity” for his role in Nazi propaganda in Germany, Husseini and other pro-Nazi Arabs involved in Arabic-language broadcasts in Berlin faced no postwar judicial reckoning. On the Dietrich trial, see Herf, Jewish Enemy, 272–274.

45 Alexander Kirk to Secretary of State, “Telegram 340, General Summary of Tendencies in Axis Broadcasts in Arabic,” Cairo (April 18, 1942), NARA, RG659, United States Department of State, Central Decimal File, 1940–1944, 740.0011/European War 1939, Microcopy No. M982, Roll 114, 21414.

46 Ibid., 1–2.

Ibid.

47 Ibid., 2.

Ibid.

48 Ibid., 2–3.

Ibid.
Ibid.

50 On the decision to issue the declaration, see Hirszowicz, The Third Reich and the Arab East, 211–228.

51 “Despatch No. 502 from the American Legation at Cairo, Egypt, Axis Broadcasts in Arabic for the Period July 3 to 9, 1942, Cairo, July 21, 1942,” 1, NARA, RG 84 Foreign Service Posts of the Department of State, General Records, Cairo Embassy, 1942, 815.4–820.02, Box 77.

52 Ibid., 1–2.

Ibid.

53 “Kill the Jews Before They Kill You,” ibid., 13.

54 Ibid., 13–14.

Ibid.

55 Mallmann and Cuppers, Halbmond und Hakenkreuz, 155–164.

56 Cited in ibid., 157. The original archive citation is CdS/VI C 13 an AA v.21.12.1942, BAB, NS 19/186.

57 Ibid., chapters 7–8.

Ibid.

58 We cannot be certain how Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany would have treated Arabs and Muslims if they had defeated the Allies in North Africa and occupied the Middle East. Within Europe, the doctrine of Aryan racial superiority went hand in hand with atrocious crimes committed against the non-Jewish, Slavic populations of eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. We know that before and during the German invasion of Poland in September 1939 and before and during Operation Barbarossa in June 1941, Nazi propaganda offered ideological justifications for these crimes in the form of vast amounts of racist propaganda about “Slavic sub-humans.” Aside from Hitler's remarks about the Arabs dating from the 1920s in Mein Kampf, however, German propaganda about Arabs and Muslims, whether in Germany or aimed at Arabs and Muslims in North Africa and the Middle East, did not echo the racist ideology directed at eastern Europeans and citizens of the Soviet Union. On the contrary, German propaganda went to great lengths to convince Arabs and Muslims that Germany was an anti-Jewish, but not an anti-Semitic, regime. If, following a victory in North Africa, Nazi Germany would have treated Arabs and Muslims as racial inferiors, it would have done so without the ideological preparations that accompanied its war crimes in eastern Europe.

59 Ibid., 15.

Ibid.

60 Fritz Grobba, “Juden sind die Drahtzieher der Amerikaner,” Berlin (July 2, 1942), PAAA, R60690 Kult Pol, Orient. Juden um Roosevelt, 1941–1942, Bd. 1.

61 On the Nazi attack on Roosevelt, see Herf, Jewish Enemy.

62 Preikecher, “Aufzeichnung für die BFP im Stabe des Herrn Reichaussenministers Herrn Dr. Magerle,” (March 16, 1943), NARA, RG242, Records of the German Foreign Office, Microcopy No. T120, roll 1015.

63 See Nicosia, The Third Reich and the Palestine Question.

64 On Nazi Germany and anti-Zionism, see Herf, Jeffrey, “Convergence: The Classic Case Nazi Germany, Anti-Semitism, and Anti-Zionism during World War II,” in Anti-Semitism and Anti-Zionism in Historical Perspective, ed. Herf, Jeffrey (London and New York: Routledge, 2007), 5071Google Scholar; and Herf, Jewish Enemy, 72–76, 180–181, and 246.

65 “Office of War Information, Overseas Operations Branch, Washington, D.C., ‘Weekly Propaganda Directive, Palestine,’” (November 14, 1942), NARA, RG165 Records of the War Department General and Special Staff, Military Intelligence Division (hereafter MID), “Regional File.” 1922–1944 Palestine, Box 2719, Folder 2930.

Ibid.
Ibid.

68 See, for example, (George) Wadsworth, “United States Office of War Information, Beirut to SecState, Washington,” (February 17, 1943), NARA RG84, Lebanon: U.S. Consulate and Legation and Embassy, Classified General Records, 1936–61, 1943: 110.2 to 1943–891 Box 8, 2–3; and George Britt, United States Office of War Information, Beirut, “Political Notes on Lebanon and Syria,” (February 13, 1943), NARA RG84, Lebanon. U.S. Consulate Legation and Embassy Beirut, 1936–1941, Classified General Records 1943: 1943 110.2 to 1943 - 891, 1; and George Britt, “Beirut September to June” (June 1943) NARA RG84, Lebanon. U.S. Consulate Legation and Embassy Beirut, 1936–1941, Classified General Records 1943: 1943 110.2 to 1943 - 891, 7.

69 See Herf, Jewish Enemy, 192–196.

70 “Berlin in Arabic,” September 8, 1943, “Talk: The Ambitions of the Jews,” Alexander Kirk to Secretary of State, Cairo (September 23, 1943), “No. 1313, Axis Broadcasts in Arabic for the period September 2 to 8, 1943,” NARA, RG 84, Egypt: Cairo Embassy General Records, 1933–1955, 820.00-822.00, 1943, Box 93. On Goebbels's “Do You Want Total War?” speech, see Herf, Jewish Enemy, 192–196.

71 Voice of Free Arabism, November 3, 1943, 8:15 p.m., “Palestine between the Bolsheviks and the Jews,” Alexander Kirk to Secretary of State, Cairo (November 19, 1943), 6–7, “No. 1410, Axis Broadcasts in Arabic for the period November 3 to 9, 1943,” 1–2, NARA, RG 84, Egypt: Cairo Embassy General Records, 1933–1955, 820.00-822.00, 1943, Box 93.

72 Voice of Free Arabism, September 24, 1943, 8:15 p.m., “What are the Aims of International Zionism?,” Alexander Kirk to Secretary of State, Cairo (October 5, 1943), “No. 1325, Axis Broadcasts in Arabic for the period September 23 to 29, 1943,” NARA, RG 84, Egypt: Cairo Embassy General Records, 1933–1955, 820.00-822.00, 1943, Box 93.

Ibid.

74 Voice of Free Arabism, November 3, 1943, 8:15 p.m., “Palestine between the Bolsheviks and the Jews,” Alexander Kirk to Secretary of State, Cairo (November 19, 1943), 6–7, “No. 1410, Axis Broadcasts in Arabic for the period November 3 to 9, 1943,” 1–2, NARA, RG 84, Egypt: Cairo Embassy General Records, 1933–1955, 820.00-822.00, 1943, Box 93.

Ibid.

76 Voice of Free Arabism, November 5, 1943, 6:30 p.m., “The Protests of the Moslems of Europe against the Balfour Declaration,” Alexander Kirk to Secretary of State, Cairo (November 19, 1943), “No. 1410, Axis Broadcasts in Arabic for the period November 3 to 9, 1943,” 3–4, NARA, RG 84, Egypt: Cairo Embassy General Records, 1933–1955, 820.00-822.00, 1943, Box 93.

77 Haj Amin el-Husseini, Rede S. Em. [Sein Eminenz] Des Grossmufti anlasslich der Protestkundgebung gegen die Balfour-Erklärung am 2. November 1943 (Berlin: Islamische Zentral-Institut, 1943), PAAA R27327, Grossmufti, 1942–1944, 297878–886.

78 Ibid., 297878–879.

Ibid.

79 Ibid., 297880.

Ibid.

80 “Berlin in Arabic,” January 28, 1944, “Talk: Arabs and Moslems at War with Jewry,” Alexander Kirk to Secretary of State, Cairo (February 6, 1944), “No. 1581, Axis Broadcasts in Arabic for the Period January 22 to 28, 1944,” NARA RG 84, Cairo Embassy General Records, 1936–1955: 1944, 820.02–822, Box 112.

Ibid.

82 “Weekly Review of Foreign Broadcasts, F.C.C., No. 118, 3/4/44, Near and Middle East,” NARA, RG165 MID, “Regional File.” 1922–1944 Palestine, Folder 2930.

83 “‘The Near East and the War Crimes Problem’: Office of Strategic Services, Research and Analysis Branch, R and A, No. 1090.116, 23 June 1945, Situation Report: Near East, Analysis of Current Intelligence for the Use of OSS,” 1–28, in NARA, RG 84, Syria: Damascus Legation, Confidential File, 1945: Vol. 1–2, 030-800B, Classified General Records, Box 4, Vol. II, 711-800B.

84 Ibid., “Summary.”

Ibid.

85 “Hassan Al-Banna and the Mufti of Palestine” in “Contents of Secret Bulletin of Al Ikhwan al-Muslimin dated 11 June 1946,” Cairo (July 23, 1946). NARA, RG 226, Office of Strategic Services, Washington Registry SI Intelligence, Field Files, Entry 108A, Box 15, Folder 2.

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