To save this undefined to your undefined account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your undefined account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
A restrictive atrial septal defect is a risk factor for mortality in some forms of left heart disease, and can be predicted from the patterns of flow in the pulmonary veins in fetal life. Our objective was to document the patterns of pulmonary venous flow of blood in different forms of left heart disease in the fetus. The pulmonary venous flow profile was documented in 61 cases. The systolic, diastolic, and reverse waves were measured and compared to normal. Profiles of venous flow suggestive of restriction at the atrial septum were found in 32 of 61 cases using the ratio of systolic to diastolic waves, and 26 cases using the height of the reverse wave.
A restrictive atrial septal defect was found most commonly in fetuses with critical aortic stenosis or the hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and was less frequently seen in the setting of mitral atresia or coarctation. In order to plan appropriate postnatal management, examination of the profiles of pulmonary venous flow is an essential part of the evaluation of any form of left heart disease detected in the fetus.
Living morphogenetic studies show that each definitive ventricle is constructed from different primitive cardiac segments, and each has its specific anatomical features. These ventricular segments are the atrioventricular junction; the primitive inlet segment, part of the primary heart tube, which initially provides the inlets of each ventricle; the primitive outlet segment, which gives rise to both ventricular outlets; and the apical trabeculated regions of the right and left ventricles which grow from the primary heart tube, respectively. In this review, we describe regional pathology based on the relationship of these primitive ventricular components. We propose that the abnormal morphogenesis of one of these segments gives origin to regional ventricular pathology. For example, abnormal embryogenesis of the atrioventricular canal produces malformations of the atrioventricular junctions, such as double inlet ventricle, absence of one atrioventricular connection, and straddling and overriding atrioventricular valves. Similarly, abnormal morphogenesis of the primitive outlet segment gives rise to malformations of the subarterial region of each ventricle, along with the valves guarding these vessels. The principal anatomical features of these malformations of the ventricular inlets and outlets are described, and their possible morphogenesis is discussed. Due to the fact that the apical trabeculated region of each ventricle arises from a separate primitive segment, each ventricle can be identified according to the pattern of its apical trabeculations. This feature is crucial in the elucidation of complex congenital pathology, such as discordant atrioventricular connections.
Background: We describe the recent results in a large cohort of patients with functionally single ventricle who underwent various modifications of cavopulmonary connections. Methods: Using the database at our institution, we identified all children who underwent cavopulmonary connection operations between June 1995 and June 1997. Demographic data, surgical history, and perioperative course were reviewed. Results: We performed 130 consecutive operations in 113 patients. The procedures included superior cavopulmonary connections in the form of the HemiFontan procedure in 45 instances, and bidirectional Glenn procedures in 11, and bilateral superior cavopulmonary connections in 7. The median age of these patients was 7.0 months. We completed Fontan operations using a fenestrated lateral tunnel on 47 occasions, and using an extracardiac conduit 9 times, 5 of which were fenestrated. A lateral tunnel without fenestration was constructed inone patient. The median age for these procedures was 19.5 months. In the remaining 10 instances, we revised Fontan procedures at a median age of 8 years. Diagnoses included hypoplastic left heart syndrome in 43 patients, double outlet right ventricle in 22, heterotaxy in 13, tricuspid atresia in 13, and a miscellaneous group accounting for the other 22. One death (0.7%) occurred within 30 days of surgery. Clinical seizures occurred in 7 children (5.3%), 6 had no residual neurologic deficits. Atrial pacing was needed in 14 children (10.7%) because of transient junctional rhythm, and 2 received treatment for supraventricular tachycardia. Pleural effusions were diagnosed radiographically after 31 of 130 (24%) procedures. Diuretic therapy resolved the effusion in 21 of these, with only 6 children requiring thoracostomy catheter drainage, and 4 undergoing thoracentesis alone. The median length of stay on the intensive care unit was 2 days, with a range from 1 to 30 days, and median stay in hospital was 6 days, with a range from 3 to 58 days. Conclusion: Mortality and perioperative morbidity after cavopulmonary connections have decreased dramatically in the current era. The long-term results of staged reconstruction for functionally single ventricle, nonetheless, await ongoing study.
Background: Elevation of cardiac troponin I in the serum is a specific marker for myocardial injury. We measured levels of troponin I in the serum in children before and after cardiac catheterization to determine if this procedure was associated with an increase in levels of troponin. Methods: We enrolled patients under 21 years of age undergoing cardiac catheterization at our institution. A baseline sample of serum was drawn at the start of the procedure. Repeat samples were obtained immediately after, and six hours subsequent to the procedure. All samples were analyzed for cardiac troponin I using the Abbott AxSYM microparticle immunoassay system. Levels were considered normal (0–0.4 ng/ml) or elevated (>0.4ng/ml). Patients were excluded if the baseline level was elevated. Results: Levels of cardiac troponin I were elevated in the serum from 11 of 14 (79%) cases immediately after the procedure (p < 0.0001), and in 12 of 14 (86%) six hours later (p < 0.0001). Only 2 patients had recognized complications potentially causing myocardial injury. Conclusion: Levels of cardiac troponin I increase in the serum in a high proportion of children after cardiac catheterization. These elevations can be observed immediately, and are maintained for at least six hours. Our study suggests that cardiac catheterization, predominantly intervention, is associated with myocardial injury, even in the absence of complications.
Aim: Subclinical valvar insufficiency, or valvitis, has recently been identified using Doppler echocardiography in cases of acute rheumatic fever with isolated arthritis or chorea. The prognosis of such patients with acute rheumatic fever and subclinical valvitis is critical when determining the duration of antibiotic prophylaxis. We aimed, therefore, prospectively to investigate the association of silent valvitis in patients having rheumatic fever in the absence of clinical evidence of cardiac involvement, and to evaluate its prognosis. Methods and Results: Between November 1998 and September 1999, we identified 26 consecutive patients with silent valvitis in presence of rheumatic fever but in the absence of clinical signs of carditis. The patients, eight female and 18 male, were aged from 6 to 16 years, with a mean of 9.9± 2.7 years. Major findings were arthritis in 16, chorea in 7, and arthritis and erythema marginatum in 1 patient. Two cases had arthralgia with equivocal arthritic signs and Doppler echocardiographic findings of pathologic mitral regurgitation. Silent pathologic mitral regurgitation was found in 12 cases, and aortic regurgitation in 2 cases. All patients with arthritic findings were treated with acetylsalicylic acid with one exception, this patient receiving both prednisone and acetylsalicylic acid. No antiinflammatory treatment was given to patients with chorea. After a mean follow-up of 4.52 months, valvar regurgitation disappeared in 4 patients, including the one with migratory arthralgia and no other major criterions. All six patients with chorea and silent carditis still have mitral insufficiency. Conclusion: Acute rheumatic fever without clinical carditis is not a benign entity. Doppler echocardiographic findings of subclinical valvar insufficiency, therefore, should be considered as carditis when seeking to establish the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever.
Objective: To determine the efficacy of anatomic biventricular repair by a combination of intraatrial and intraventricular re-routing in patients with isomerism of the left atrial appendages. Methods: Anatomic biventricular repair by means of combined intraratrial and intraventricular re-routing was achieved in 5 of the 63 patients with left isomerism in whom we attempted a definitive surgical procedure. The inferior caval vein was interrupted in 3. The Mustard procedure was chosen for intraatrial redirection of blood in 4, and the Senning procedure in the other. Intraventricular re-routing was carried out via a right ventriculotomy in all patients, using an external conduit to reconstruct the morphologically right ventricular outflow tract. Results: One patient died one month after the procedure because of low cardiac output and bronchial bleeding. Obstruction across the superior caval venous channel occurred after the Senning procedure in this particular patient, related to the interrupted inferior caval vein draining via the azygous vein. The other 4 patients are currently doing well. Postoperative catheterization showed excellent cardiac performance, with no obstruction across the venous channels or the ventricular outflow tracts in these 4. No episode of significant archythmia has been noted, all patients having a regular atrial rhythm, although the P wave vector was unusual in each patient. Reoperation has been needed thus far in one patient, 128 months after the initial repair, because of obstruction of the external conduit. Conclusion: With precise recognition of the morphologic features, a combination of intraatrial and intraventricular re-routing can successfully be established in patients with isomeric left atrial appendages, with functional results in the intermediate term being reasonable.