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A young child presented with syncope attacks. Late-onset post-operative complete atrioventricular block and Torsades de Pointes were diagnosed. She was treated with surgical epicardial pacemaker implantation. This report is the description of Torsades de Pointes due to late-onset post-operative complete atrioventricular block followed by R on T phenomenon in a child.
Apical ventricular septal defects are a heterogeneous group of septal defects that need accurate anatomic characterisation for planning appropriate management. Left ventricular-infundibular apical septal defects are defects between the left ventricular septum and the infundibular apex of the right ventricle with distinctive morphological features. We describe two illustrative examples of this septal defect with focus on their therapeutic implications and long-term outcome.
Absent pulmonary valve syndrome and double-outlet left ventricle are rare congenital anomalies, with, to the best of our knowledge, no cases reported to date. We present the treatment course in a patient with an absent pulmonary valve, double-outlet left ventricle, dextrocardia, hypoplastic right ventricle, valvular aortic stenosis, and bronchomalacia.
We report the first successful Glenn procedure for pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum in the setting of D-transposition of the great arteries. This case was complicated by hypoplastic left ventricle and severe mitral regurgitation. Partial closure of the mitral valve at the time of Blalock-Taussig shunting resulted in improvement of heart failure.
Congenital coronary artery anomalies are of major significance in clinical cardiology and cardiac surgery due to their association with myocardial ischaemia and sudden death. Having a multidisciplinary approach in managing complex congenital conditions and including patients in the management decisions is essential for good doctor–patient relationship. Here within, we describe a complex coronary artery fistula leading to myocardial steal.
Prematurity and low birthweight are associated with increased mortality in infants undergoing cardiac surgery. Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum and right ventricle-dependent coronary circulation carries one of the highest risks of mortality. We present a patient who was born at 28 weeks of gestation at 1.2 kg, with pulmonary atresia intact ventricular septum, right ventricle-dependent coronary circulation, coronary artery atresia, and discontinuous pulmonary arteries, who successfully underwent palliation with a modified Blalock–Taussig shunt, pulmonary arterioplasty, and subsequently a bidirectional Glenn.
The study aimed to show the chromosomal copy number variations responsible for the aetiology in patients with isolated conotruncal heart anomaly by array comparative genomic hybridisation and identify candidate genes causing conotruncal heart disease. A total of 37 patients, 17 male, and 20 female, with isolated conotruncal heart anomalies, were included in the study. No findings indicated any syndrome in terms of dysmorphology in the patients.
Copy number variations were detected in the array comparative genomic hybridisation analysis of five (13.5%) of 37 patients included in the study. Three candidate genes (PRDM16, HIST1H1E, GJA5) found in these deletion and duplication regions may be associated with the conotruncal cardiac anomaly.
CHDs can be encountered as the first and sometimes the single finding of many genetic disorders in children. It is thought that genetic tests, especially array comparative genomic hybridisation, may be beneficial for children with CHD since the diagnosis of genetic diseases in these patients as early as possible will help to prevent or reduce complications that may develop in the future. Also, it would be possible to detect candidate genes responsible for conotruncal cardiac anomalies with array comparative genomic hybridisation.
A maternally inherited novel pathogenic non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding gene variant c.767G>T, p.R256I [NM_001145408], manifested in a male infant as dilated cardiomyopathy with severe left ventricular dysfunction and dilation, biventricular non-compaction, tricuspid hypoplasia, and hydrocephaly. To the best of our knowledge, no previous non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding gene variants with biventricular non-compaction have been associated with tricuspid valve hypoplasia. Hence, this case introduces a new pathogenic variant observed in the non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding gene and adds to the range of cardiac phenotypes identified in non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding gene variants.
A 4-day-old girl with Posterior fossa anomalies, Haemangiomas of the head and neck, Arterial, Cardiovascular, and Eye anomalies and ventral developmental defect syndrome comprising a facial haemangioma, aortic coarctation at the aortic arch, torturous aortic aneurysm distal to coarctation, and ductus arteriosus originating proximal to the coarctation is presented. The aortic arch was successfully reconstructed without cardiopulmonary bypass, and she is currently doing well after 4 years and 8 months.
Patients with CHD can be exposed to high levels of cumulative ionising radiation. Utilisation of electroanatomic mapping during catheter ablation leads to reduced radiation exposure in the general population but has not been well studied in patients with CHD. This study evaluated the radiation sparing benefit of using three-dimensional mapping in patients with CHD.
Data were retrospectively collected from the Catheter Ablation with Reduction or Elimination of Fluoroscopy multi-institutional registry. Patients with CHD were selected. Those with previous ablations, concurrent diagnostic or interventional catheterisation and unknown arrhythmogenic foci were excluded. The control cohort was matched for operating physician, arrhythmia mechanism, arrhythmia location, weight and age. The procedure time, rate of fluoroscopy use, fluoroscopy time, procedural success, complications, and distribution of procedures per year were compared between the two groups.
Fifty-six patients with congenital heart disease and 56 matched patients without CHD were included. The mean total procedure time was significantly higher in patients with CHD (212.6 versus 169.5 minutes, p = 0.003). Their median total fluoroscopy time was 4.4 minutes (compared to 1.8 minutes), and their rate of fluoroscopy use was 23% (compared to 13%). The acute success and minor complication rates were similar and no major complications occurred.
With the use of electroanatomic mapping during catheter ablation, fluoroscopy use can be reduced in patients with CHD. The majority of patients with CHD received zero fluoroscopy.
In a 6-year-old child patient, transthoracic echocardiography revealed a large saccular structure (with anechogenic content) in the left atrium, near the fossa ovalis, and diagnosis of the left atrial septal pouch was made. The left atrial septal pouch is a kangaroo pouch-like structure on the left side of the interatrial septum, opened into the left atrial cavity without a connection between the left and right atria. It occurs when the foramen ovale is absent but the septum primum and septum secundum are only partially fused. The left atrial septal pouch is believed to be present in 47% of population. In many cases, the pocket on the atrial septum is small and it could not be detected by transthoracic echocardiography. Our description is uncommon because we diagnosed a very large septal pouch. Based on our knowledge, this is the youngest reported case of the left atrial septal pouch and the longest follow-up described in this type of congenital heart malformation.
Isolated leftward prolapse or deviation of the primary atrial septum is a rare CHD that can mimic abnormal pulmonary venous return at first sight. We present a case of a newborn infant, referred for surgical correction of totally anomalous pulmonary venous return into the right atrium, with the peri-operative finding of a leftward deviation of the superior margin of the primary atrial septum. The distinction with a dividing atrial shelf could not be confirmed with certainty. Fifty-three similar cases from the literature are incorporated. A detailed review of the current account on atrial septation is studied. The embryological and clinical features of a dividing partition of the left atrium are discussed.
The present study aimed to quantify the burden of structural heart disease in Nepali children.
We performed a school-based cross-sectional echocardiographic screening study with cluster random sampling among children 5–16 years of age.
Between December 2012 and January 2019, 6573 children (mean age 10.6 ± 2.9 years) from 41 randomly selected schools underwent echocardiographic screening. Structural heart disease was detected in 14.0 per 1000 children (95% CI 11.3–17.1) and was congenital in 3.3 per 1000 (95% CI 2.1–5.1) and rheumatic in 10.6 per 1000 (95% CI 8.3–13.4). Rates of rheumatic heart disease were higher among children attending public as compared to private schools (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.6–5.2, p = 0.0001).
Rheumatic heart disease accounted for three out of four cases of structural heart disease and was more common among children attending public as compared to private schools.
Truncus arteriosus is a rare CHD. Neonatal and early infancy repair is recommended though some cases may present late. The aim of our study is to investigate the current results of truncus arteriosus repair and to analyse the differences in outcome and reintervention need between early versus late truncus arteriosus surgical repair.
Material and methods:
In this cohort study, we reviewed all children who underwent truncus arteriosus repair from 2001 till 2021. We divided patients into two groups; early repair group including patients repaired at age less than 3 months and late repair group including patients who had repair at 3 months of age and later. We compared both groups for outcome variables.
Sixty-four children had truncus arteriosus repair including 48(75%) patients in early repair and 16(25%) patients in late repair groups. Peri-operative course was comparable between both groups. Post-surgery, we observed pulmonary hypertension in 6(12%) patients in early repair group comparing with 11(69%) patients in late repair group (p = 0.0001). In the last follow-up visit, pulmonary hypertension resolved in all early repair group patients while 6(37.5%) patients in late repair group continued to have pulmonary hypertension (p = 0.0001). Twenty-three(36%) patients required reintervention including 22(48%) in early repair group versus 1(6%) in late repair group (p = 0.007).
In general, the outcome of early truncus arteriosus repair is excellent with resolution of pulmonary hypertension following early repair. Late repair caries higher risk of persistent pulmonary hypertension (37.5%). About one-third of the patients who had truncus arteriosus repair will require re-intervention within 38±38.4 months after initial surgery.
Patients with erythrokeratodermia cardiomyopathy syndrome exhibit congenital, generalised erythrokeratoderma and dilated cardiomyopathy during early childhood. We report a case of erythrokeratodermia cardiomyopathy syndrome in a 15-year-old male patient and focus this report on cardiac features that were present.
Laterality anomalies are almost always associated with severe cardiac anomalies. Demographic properties, type of the procedures, associated anomalies, and early and mid-term prognosis of four types of laterality anomalies were analysed.
A total of 64 consecutive patients with laterality anomalies were enrolled between July 2014 and July 2020. We grouped the patients as situs solitus dextrocardia (SSD) (n = 12; 18.7%); situs inversus (SI) (n = 16; 25%); right atrial isomerism (RAI) (n = 29; 45.3%); and left atrial isomerism (LAI) (n = 7; 10.9%). TAPVC was only present in the RAI group (31%). Incidence of mitral or tricuspid atresia was higher in the SSD group (25%). All the patients were followed up with a mean of 19.06 ± 17.6 (0.1–72) months.
Early postoperative mortality was 17 patients, among 107 procedures (15.8%). Twelve patients were in the neonatal period. All ten patients survived after isolated ductal stenting. Fourteen of the deaths were in the RAI group (48.3%). The 3-year survival rates were 85% in LAI, 78.7% in SI, 55.8% in SSD, and 38% in RAI groups. According to the multivariable Cox regression model, mechanical ventilation, kidney injury, RAI, and complex surgery in the neonatal period were independent risk factors for early mortality.
Laterality anomalies are one of the most challenging patients who commonly had univentricular physiology. The most prevalent anomaly was RAI, and RAI had the worst outcome and survival. Ductal stent is an acceptable first intervention during the neonatal period in suitable patients. Complex procedures may carry a high risk of death in the neonatal period.
Ebstein malformation of tricuspid valve is a congenital disease of tricuspid valve with associated right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a form of inherited left ventricular cardiomyopathy caused by sarcomeric protein gene mutations with inherent risks of sudden cardiac death. Here we report a rare case with co-occurrence of Ebstein malformation of tricuspid valve and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a young patient.
Isolated ventricular inversion with situs solitus is a severe and rare congenital cardiac malformation characterised by an atrioventricular discordance but with ventriculo-arterial concordance. Here, we present the rare case of an adolescent with isolated ventricular inversion and hypoplasia of the left-sided morphological right ventricle and pulmonary stenosis, a first of its kind to be reported in the literature.
The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to determine the incidence, potential risk factors, characteristics, and outcomes of acute kidney injury in children following the arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries.
Retrospective review of children who underwent ASO between 2000 and 2020 in our tertiary children’s hospital in the Netherlands. Pre-and post-ASO serum creatinine levels were collected. Severe AKI was defined as 100% serum creatinine rise or estimated creatinine clearance <35 ml/min/1.73 m2 according to pRIFLE criteria. Logistic regression was used to adjust for confounders.
A total of 242 children were included. Fifty-seven (24%) children developed severe AKI after ASO. Four patients with severe AKI were treated with renal replacement therapy. Children with severe AKI had a longer duration of mechanical ventilation 4.5 (1.0–29) versus 3 (1.0–12) days (p = 0.001), longer PICU stay 7 (2–76) versus 5 (1–70) days, (p = 0.001), higher rate of myocardial infarction 5% versus 0.5% (p = 0.001), sepsis 24% versus 9% (p = 0.002), post-operative pulmonary hypertension 19% versus 6% (p = 0.002), post-operative bleeding 9% versus 3% (p = 0.044), longer time to sternal closure 3 (1–19) versus 2 (1–6) days, (p = 0.009), and a higher mortality rate 9.0% versus 0.5% (p = 0.001) compared to children without severe AKI. Sepsis was a risk factor for developing severe AKI.
In this single-centre cohort, 24% of our patients developed severe AKI after ASO, which is associated with increased morbidity, longer PICU stay, and higher mortality.
The optimal timing, surgical technique, and the influence of Trisomy 21 on the outcome of surgical repair of Complete Atrioventricular Canal Defect remains uncertain. We reviewed our experience in the repair of CAVC to identify the influence of these factors on operative outcomes.
A prospective study included 70 patients, who underwent repair of CAVC at our institute between July, 2016 and October, 2019. Primary endpoint was mortality and the secondary endpoint was a degree of left atrioventricular valve regurgitation.
No significant difference was noted between patients operated on, at the first 6 months of age versus later, regarding mortality or LAVV regurgitation. Surgical repair by modified single-patch technique showed a significant reduction in bypass time (71.13 ± 13.507 min versus 99.19 ± 27.092 min, p-value = 0.001). Compared to closure of cleft only, posterior annuloplasty used for repair of LAVV resulted in significant reduction in the occurrence of post-operative valve regurgitation during the early period (LAVV 2 + 43 versus 7 %, p-value = 0.03) and at 6 months of follow-up (LAVV 2 + 35.4 versus 0 %, p-value = 0.01), respectively.
Early intervention, in the first 6 months in patients with CAVC by surgical repair gives comparable acceptable results to later repair; Trisomy 21 was not found to be a risk factor for early intervention. Repair of common AV valve by cleft closure with posterior LAVV annuloplasty showed better results with a significant decrease in post-operative LAVV regurgitation and early mortality in comparison to the closure of cleft only.