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Use of routine ventricular assist following the first stage Norwood procedure

  • Ross M. Ungerleider (a1), Irving Shen (a1), Grant Burch (a1), Robert Butler (a1) and Michael Silberbach (a1)...


Surgical treatment of hypoplastic left heart syndrome has generated substantial interest and attention amongst cardiac surgeons since the initial reports from Norwood and his colleagues in 1980.1,2 Initial efforts at most programmes were to create reproducible results, and mortality rates remained high at several institutions throughout the 1980s and 1990s. A recent multi-institutional review demonstrates that the hospital mortality still remains high in numerous centers at the current time.3 Nevertheless, several advances over recent years have led to improved outcomes, and in the best centers, hospital survival now approaches 90%. Survival in successful centers is claimed to relate to the ability of the team to help the patient balance the systemic and pulmonary flows of blood. This ability to balance flow has been enhanced, over recent years, by numerous contributions, including decreasing the size of shunt ordinarily used,4 the use of alpha blockade,5 the rapid deployment of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation,68 and various forms of ventilatory manipulation.


Corresponding author

Correspondence to: Ross Ungerleider MD, Chief, Cardiac Surgery, Doernbecher Children's Hospital, DC 8 S, Oregon Health and Sciences University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon, USA. Tel: 503 418 5443; Fax: 503 418 1385; E-mail:


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Use of routine ventricular assist following the first stage Norwood procedure

  • Ross M. Ungerleider (a1), Irving Shen (a1), Grant Burch (a1), Robert Butler (a1) and Michael Silberbach (a1)...


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