The use of intraoperative echocardiography with Doppler color flow imaging has acquired increased popularity for early assessment of efficacy of repair of congenital heart defects soon after discontinuance of cardiopulmonary bypass. This technology has been found useful also for evaluating the anatomy of the lesion prior to repair. Furthermore, with the use of color flow mapping, additional anomalies, such as patent arterial duct or multiple ventricular septal defects, which might have been overlooked during the initial examination, can be easily diagnosed. Moreover, intraoperative echocardiography provides the quickest and most sensitive method for a surgeon to look for residual atrioventricular valves regurgitation and/or residual atrial or ventricular septal defects as well as for depressed ventricular contractility. Previous studies1–4 have discussed specifically the applicability of intraoperative color flow imaging during the repair of atrioventricular septal defect with a common atrioventricular orifice using both epicardial and transesophageal methodology. Routine intraoperative echocardiography with Doppler color flow imaging has been used since March 1987 at Duke University Medical Center during repair of congenital heart defects. Our aim was to confirm the preoperative dignosis and to assess the quality of repair soon after discontinuance of cardiopulmonary bypass. Our overall experience now includes 612 patients of whom 239 or 39% were less than one year of age at the time of repair. This indicates our tendency to undertake early correction regardless of the age of patients and of the severity of the lesion.