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Timing of adding blood to prime affects inflammatory response to neonatal cardiopulmonary bypass

  • Benjamin S. Schmidt (a1), James E. Jordan (a1), Magan R. Lane (a1), Vanessa M. DiPasquale (a1), Lori P. Graf (a1), Yoshio Ootaki (a1) and Ross M. Ungerleider (a1)...


Complications from systemic inflammation are reported in neonates following exposure to cardiopulmonary bypass. Although the use of asanguinous primes can reduce these complications, in neonates, this can result in significant haemodilution, requiring addition of blood. This study investigates whether the addition of blood after institution of bypass alters the inflammatory response compared with a blood prime. Neonatal swine were randomised into four groups: blood prime, blood after bypass but before cooling, blood after cooling but before low flow, and blood after re-warming. All groups were placed on central bypass, cooled, underwent low flow, and then re-warmed for a total bypass time of 2 hours. Although haematocrit values between groups varied throughout bypass, all groups ended with a similar value. Although they spent time with a lower haematocrit, asanguinous prime groups did not have elevated lactate levels at the end of bypass compared with blood prime. Asanguinous primes released less tumour necrosis factor α than blood primes (p=0.023). Asanguinous primes with blood added on bypass produced less interleukin 10 and tumour necrosis factor α (p=0.006, 0.019). Animals receiving blood while cool also showed less interleukin 10 and tumour necrosis factor α production than those that received blood warm (p=0.026, 0.033). Asanguinous primes exhibited less oedema than blood primes, with the least body weight gain noted in the end cool group (p=0.011). This study suggests that using an asanguinous prime for neonates being cooled to deep hypothermia is practical, and the later addition of blood reduces inflammation.


Corresponding author

Correspondence to: R. Ungerleider MD, MBA, Brenner Children’s Hospital, Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, Ardmore Tower, 10th Floor, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, United States of America. Tel: 336-716-1380; Fax: 336-716-3348; E-mail:


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