the techniques of computational fluid dynamics are among the most powerful tools available to engineers dealing with the motion of fluids and the exchange of mass, momentum, and energy. they have recently been shown to have an increasing number of applications to the human cardiovascular system, including the fluid dynamics of surgical reconstruction of congenitally malformed parts of the cardiovascular system. in vitro models are the alternative laboratory tools with which to study fluid dynamics. the advantages of computational fluid dynamics over the in vitro models are the easy quantification of haemodynamic variables, such as rates of flow, pressure, and distribution of shear stress, and changes in geometric and fluid dynamics parameters. furthermore, using computational fluid dynamics allows the development of three-dimensional models to reproduce both the complex anatomy of the investigated region and the details of the surgical reconstruction, especially with the recent developments in magnetic resonance imaging. on the basis of the results, it is possible quantitatively to evaluate the surgical correction. this technology, which benefits greatly from the continuous improvement in hardware and software, enables cardiovascular experts and bioengineers to look at the fluid dynamics of various cardiovascular regions with increasing sophistication.