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Primary cardiovascular care for patients with valvar cardiac disease*

  • Jeffrey R. Boris (a1)


Outpatient management of patients with structurally or functionally abnormal cardiac valves combines an ability to record an appropriate history, a directed physical examination, a knowledge of both the interpretation as well as the context of any associated testing, and an understanding of the care guidelines in the medical literature. This article attempts to integrate these various features to guide the clinician towards more appropriate and timely management of patients with cardiac valve disease.


Corresponding author

Correspondence to: Dr J. R. Boris, MD, Clinical Professor of Pediatrics, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, 3401 Civic Center Blvd, Division of Cardiology Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States of America. Tel: +215-590-3180; Fax: +267-426-5324; E-mail:


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Presented at All Children’s Hospital Johns Hopkins Medicine 14th International Symposium on Congenital Heart Disease, Saint Petersburg, Florida, 15–18 February 2014, Special Focus: Diseases of the Cardiac Valves from the Fetus to the Adult, Co-Sponsor: The American Association for Thoracic Surgery (AATS).



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