Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Parental stress and resilience in CHD: a new frontier for health disparities research

  • Amy J. Lisanti (a1) (a2)

Abstract

Parental stress is a universal experience for parents who have children diagnosed with CHD and has been studied within the context of the child’s illness, but not through a broader health disparity lens. This paper provides a thorough synthesis of the current literature on parental stress addressing disparities in parents of children with CHD. Several theories and models from within this literature are described and a new comprehensive framework, the Parental Stress and Resilience in CHD Model, is presented. Future research and clinical implications are discussed.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: A. J. Lisanti, University of Pennsylvania, 418 Curie Blvd, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Fax: 215 573 9193; E-mail: lisanti@upenn.edu

Footnotes

Hide All

Cite this article: Lisanti AJ. (2018) Parental stress and resilience in CHD: a new frontier for health disparities research. Cardiology in the Young 28: 1142–1150. doi: 10.1017/S1047951118000963

Footnotes

References

Hide All
1. Berkowitz, B, McCubbin, M. Advancement of health disparities research: a conceptual approach. Nurs Outlook 2005; 53: 153159.
2. Flaskerud, JH, Winslow, BJ. Conceptualizing vulnerable populations health-related research. Nurs Res 1998; 47: 6978.
3. Knowles, RL, Ridout, D, Crowe, S, et al. Ethnic and socioeconomic variation in incidence of congenital heart defects. Arch Dis Child 2017; 102: 496502.
4. Kucik, JE, Cassell, CH, Alverson, CJ, et al. Role of health insurance on the survival of infants with congenital heart defects. Am J Public Health 2014; 104: e62e70.
5. Kucik, JE, Nembhard, WN, Donohue, P, et al. Community socioeconomic disadvantage and the survival of infants with congenital heart defects. Am J Public Health 2014; 104: e150e157.
6. Wang, Y, Liu, G, Druschel, CM, Kirby, RS. Maternal race/ethnicity and survival experience of children with congenital heart disease. J Pediatr 2013; 163: 14371442; e1431–1432.
7. Lisanti, AJ, Allen, LR, Kelly, L, Medoff-Cooper, B. Maternal stress and anxiety in the pediatric cardiac intensive care unit. Am J Criti Care 2017; 26: 118125.
8. Rychik, J, Donaghue, DD, Levy, S, et al. Maternal psychological stress after prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease. J Pediatr. 2013; 162: 302307 e301.
9. Vrijmoet-Wiersma, CM, Ottenkamp, J, van Roozendaal, M, Grootenhuis, MA, Koopman, HM. A multicentric study of disease-related stress, and perceived vulnerability, in parents of children with congenital cardiac disease. Cardiol Young 2009; 19: 608614.
10. Golfenshtein, N, Hanlon, AL, Deatrick, JA, Medoff-Cooper, B. Parenting stress in parents of infants with congenital heart disease and parents of healthy infants: the first year of life. Compr Child Adolesc Nurs 2017; 40: 294314.
11. Landolt, MA, Ystrom, E, Stene-Larsen, K, Holmstrom, H, Vollrath, ME. Exploring causal pathways of child behavior and maternal mental health in families with a child with congenital heart disease: a longitudinal study. Psychol Med 2014; 44: 34213433.
12. Wernovsky, G. Current insights regarding neurological and developmental abnormalities in children and young adults with complex congenital cardiac disease. Cardiol Young 2006; 16: 92104.
13. Wernovsky, G, Licht, DJ. Neurodevelopmental outcomes in children with congenital heart disease–what can we impact? Pediatr Crit Care Med 2016; 17 (8 Suppl 1): S232S242.
14. Raphael, JL, Zhang, Y, Liu, H, Giardino, AP. Parenting stress in US families: implications for paediatric healthcare utilization. Child Care Health Dev 2010; 36: 216224.
15. Ernst, MM, Marino, BS, Cassedy, A, et al. Biopsychosocial predictors of quality of life outcomes in pediatric congenital heart disease. Pediatr Cardiol 2018; 39: 7988.
16. Franck, L, Mcquillen, A, Wray, J, Grocott, MP, Goldman, A. Parent stress levels during children’s hospital recovery after congenital heart surgery. Pediatr Cardiol 2010; 31: 961968.
17. Dudek-Shriber, L. Parent stress in the neonatal intensive care unit and the influence of parent and infant characteristics. Am J Occup Ther 2004; 58: 509520.
18. Lawoko, S, Soares, JJF. Psychosocial morbidity among parents of children with congenital heart disease: a prospective longitudinal study. Heart Lung 2006; 35: 301314.
19. Doherty, N, McCusker, CG, Molloy, B, et al. Predictors of psychological functioning in mothers and fathers of infants born with severe congenital heart disease. J Reprod Infant Psychol 2009; 27: 390400.
20. Woolf-King, SE, Anger, A, Arnold, EA, Weiss, SJ, Teitel, D. Mental health among parents of children with critical congenital heart defects: a systematic review. J Am Heart Assoc 2017; 6: e004862.
21. Lazarus, RS, Folkman, S. Stress, Appraisal and Coping. Springer, New York, 1984.
22. Kolaitis, GA, Meentken, MG, Utens, E. Mental health problems in parents of children with congenital heart disease. Front Pediatr 2017; 5: 102.
23. Jackson, AC, Frydenberg, E, Liang, RP, Higgins, RO, Murphy, BM. Familial impact and coping with child heart disease: a systematic review. Pediatr Cardiol 2015; 36: 695712.
24. Hearps, SJ, Mc Carthy, MC, Muscara, F, et al. Psychosocial risk in families of infants undergoing surgery for a serious congenital heart disease. Cardiol Young 2014; 23: 632638.
25. Conger, RD, Conger, KJ, Martin, MJ. Socioeconomic status, family processes, and individual development. J Marriage Fam 2010; 72: 685704.
26. Scrimin, S, Haynes, M, Alto, G, Bornstein, MH, Axia, G. Anxiety and stress in mothers and fathers in the 24 h after their child’s surgery. Child Care Health Dev 2009; 35: 227233.
27. Norberg, AL, Lindblad, F, Boman, KK. Parental traumatic stress during and after paediatric cancer treatment. Acta Oncologica 2005; 44: 382388.
28. Guilfoyle, SM, Denson, LA, Baldassano, RN, Hommel, KA. Paediatric parenting stress in inflammatory bowel disease: application of the pediatric inventory for parents. Child Care Health Dev 2012; 38: 273279.
29. Anderson, LS. Predictors of parenting stress in a diverse sample of parents of early adolescents in high-risk communities. Nurs Res 2008; 57: 340350.
30. McConnell, D, Breitkreuz, R, Savage, A. From financial hardship to child difficulties: main and moderating effects of perceived social support. Child Care Health Dev 2011; 37: 679691.
31. Sturms, LM, van der Sluis, CK, Stewart, RE, Groothoff, JW, ten Duis, HJ, Eisma, WH. A prospective study on paediatric traffic injuries: health-related quality of life and post-traumatic stress. Clin Rehabil 2005; 19: 312322.
32. Shields-Poe, D, Pinelli, J. Variables associated with parental stress in neonatal intensive care units. Neonatal Netw 1997; 16: 2937.
33. Davis, CC, Brown, RT, Bakeman, R, Campbell, R. Psychological adaptation and adjustment of mothers of children with congenital heart disease: stress, coping, and family functioning. J Pediatr Psychol 1998; 23: 219228.
34. Dunkel Schetter, C, Schafer, P, Lanzi, RG, et al. Shedding light on the mechanisms underlying health disparities through community participatory methods: the stress pathway. Perspect Psychol Sci 2013; 8: 613633.
35. Yildiz, A, Celebioglu, A, Olgun, H. Distress levels in Turkish parents of children with congenital heart disease. Australian J Adv Nurs 2009; 26: 3946.
36. Bonis, S. Stress and parents of children with autism: a review of literature. Issues Ment Health Nurs 2016; 37: 153163.
37. Lisanti, AJ, Golfenshtein, N, Medoff-Cooper, B. The pediatric cardiac intensive care unit parental stress model: refinement using directed content analysis. ANS Adv Nurs Sci 2017; 40: 319336.
38. Spijkerboer, AW, Helbing, WA, Bogers, AJ, Van Domburg, RT, Verhulst, FC, Utens, EM. Long-term psychological distress, and styles of coping, in parents of children and adolescents who underwent invasive treatment for congenital cardiac disease. Cardiol Young 2007; 17: 638645.
39. Lopez, R, Frangini, P, Ramirez, M, et al. Well-being and agency in parents of children with congenital heart disease: a survey in chile. World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg 2016; 7: 139145.
40. Helfricht, S, Latal, B, Fischer, JE, Tomaske, M, Landolt, MA. Surgery-related posttraumatic stress disorder in parents of children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery: a prospective cohort study. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2008; 9: 217223.
41. Ramchandani, P, Stein, A, Evans, J, O’Connor, TG, ALSPAC study team. Paternal depression in the postnatal period and child development: a prospective population study. Lancet 2005; 365: 22012205.
42. Ramchandani, PG, Stein, A, O’Connor, TG, Heron, J, Murray, L, Evans, J. Depression in men in the postnatal period and later child psychopathology: a population cohort study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2008; 47: 390398.
43. Pinelli, J, Saigal, S, Bill Wu, Y-W, et al. Patterns of change in family functioning, resources, coping and parental depression in mothers and fathers of sick newborns over the first year of life. J Neonatal Nurs 2008; 14: 156165.
44. Tak, YR, McCubbin, M. Family stress, perceived social support and coping following the diagnosis of a child’s congenital heart disease. J Adv Nurs 2002; 39: 190198.
45. Hoehn, KS, Wernovsky, G, Rychik, J, et al. Parental decision-making in congenital heart disease. Cardiol Young 2004; 14: 309314.
46. Shaw, RJ, Deblois, T, Ikuta, L, Ginzburg, K, Fleisher, B, Koopman, C. Acute stress disorder among parents of infants in the neonatal intensive care nursery. Psychosomatics 2006; 47: 206212.
47. Wray, J, Sensky, T. Psychological functioning in parents of children undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Cardiol Young 2004; 14: 131139.
48. Haegen, MV, Luminet, O. Stress, psychosocial mediators, and cognitive mediators in parents of child cancer patients and cancer survivors: attention and working memory pathway perspectives. J Psychosoc Oncol 2015; 33: 504550.
49. Pinto, NM, Weng, C, Sheng, X, et al. Modifiers of stress related to timing of diagnosis in parents of children with complex congenital heart disease. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2016; 29: 33403346.
50. Utens, EM, Versluis-Den Bieman, HJ, Verhulst, FC, Witsenburg, M, Bogers, AJ, Hess, J. Psychological distress and styles of coping in parents of children awaiting elective cardiac surgery. Cardiol Young 2000; 10: 239244.
51. Franich-Ray, C, Bright, MA, Anderson, V, et al. Trauma reactions in mothers and fathers after their infant’s cardiac surgery. J Pediatr Psychol 2013; 38: 494505.
52. Bevilacqua, F, Palatta, S, Mirante, N, et al. Birth of a child with congenital heart disease: emotional reactions of mothers and fathers according to time of diagnosis. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013; 26: 12491253.
53. Carpenter, T, Grecian, SM, Reynolds, RM. Sex differences in early-life programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in humans suggest increased vulnerability in females: a systematic review. J Dev Orig Health Dis 2017; 8: 244255.
54. van der Voorn, B, Hollanders, JJ, Ket, JCF, Rotteveel, J, Finken, MJJ. Gender-specific differences in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity during childhood: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Biol Sex Differ 2017; 8: 3.
55. Sherman, GD, Rice, LK, Jin, ES, Jones, AC, Josephs, RA. Sex differences in cortisol’s regulation of affiliative behavior. Horm Behav 2017; 92: 2028.
56. Rutherfurd-Markwick, K, Starck, C, Dulson, DK, Ali, A. Salivary diagnostic markers in males and females during rest and exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2017; 14: 27.
57. Gifford, RM, Reynolds, RM. Sex differences in early-life programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in humans. Early Hum Dev 2017; 114: 710.
58. Andiarena, A, Balluerka, N, Murcia, M, Ibarluzea, J, Glover, V, Vegas, O. Evening salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase at 14months and neurodevelopment at 4years: sex differences. Horm Behav 2017; 94: 135144.
59. Golfenshtein, N, Srulovici, E, Medoff-Cooper, B. Investigating parenting stress across pediatric health conditions – a systematic review. Issues Compr Pediatr Nurs 2015; 39: 149.
60. Franck, LS, Wray, J, Gay, C, Dearmun, AK, Lee, K, Cooper, BA. Predictors of parent post-traumatic stress symptoms after child hospitalization on general pediatric wards: a prospective cohort study. Int J Nurs Stud 2015; 52: 1021.
61. Goldberg, AE, Smith, JZ. Predictors of parenting stress in lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parents during early parenthood. J Fam Psychol 2014; 28: 125137.
62. Menahem, S, Poulakis, Z, Prior, M. Children subjected to cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease. Part 2 – parental emotional experiences. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2008; 7: 605608.
63. Visconti, KJ, Saudino, KJ, Rappaport, LA, Newburger, JW, Bellinger, DC. Influence of parental stress and social support on the behavioral adjustment of children with transposition of the great arteries. J Dev Behav Pediatr 2002; 23: 314321.
64. Torowicz, D, Irving, S, Sumpter, D, Medoff-Cooper, B. Infant temperament and parental stress in 3 month old infant following surgery for complex congenital heart disease. J Dev Behav Pediatr 2010; 31: 17.
65. Jordan, B, Franich-Ray, C, Albert, N, et al. Early mother-infant relationships after cardiac surgery in infancy. Arch Dis Child 2014; 99: 641645.
66. Majnemer, A, Limperopoulos, C, Shevell, M, Rohlicek, C, Rosenblatt, B, Tchervenkov, C. Health and well-being of children with congenital cardiac malformations, and their families, following open-heart surgery. Cardiol Young 2006; 16: 157164.
67. Uzark, K, Jones, K. Parenting stress and children with heart disease. J Pediatr Health Care 2003; 17: 163168.
68. Brosig, CL, Whitstone, BN, Frommelt, MA, Frisbee, SJ, Leuthner, SR. Psychological distress in parents of children with severe congenital heart disease: the impact of prenatal versus postnatal diagnosis. J Perinatol 2007; 27: 687692.
69. Caris, EC, Dempster, N, Wernovsky, G, et al. Anxiety scores in caregivers of children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Congenit Heart Dis 2016; 11: 727732.
70. Kosta, L, Harms, L, Franich-Ray, C, et al. Parental experiences of their infant’s hospitalization for cardiac surgery. Child Care Health Dev 2015; 41: 10571065.
71. Schabert, J, Browne, JL, Mosely, K, Speight, J. Social stigma in diabetes : a framework to understand a growing problem for an increasing epidemic. Patient 2013; 6: 110.
72. Clair, M, Daniel, C, Lamont, M. Destigmatization and health: cultural constructions and the long-term reduction of stigma. Soc Sci Med 2016; 165: 223232.
73. Puhl, RM, Heuer, CA. The stigma of obesity: a review and update. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2009; 17: 941964.
74. Hatzenbuehler, ML, Phelan, JC, Link, BG. Stigma as a fundamental cause of population health inequalities. Am J Public Health 2013; 103: 813821.
75. Schomerus, G, Schwahn, C, Holzinger, A, et al. Evolution of public attitudes about mental illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2012; 125: 440452.
76. Whitley, R, McKenzie, K. Social capital and psychiatry: review of the literature. Harv Rev Psychiatry 2005; 13: 7184.
77. Murayama, H, Fujiwara, Y, Kawachi, I. Social capital and health: a review of prospective multilevel studies. J Epidemiol 2012; 22: 179187.
78. Thuy, NT, Berry, HL. Social capital and mental health among mothers in Vietnam who have children with disabilities. Glob Health Action 2013; 6: 18886.
79. Mussatto, K. Adaptation of the child and family to life with a chronic illness. Cardiol Young 2006; 16 (Suppl 3): 110.
80. Thompson, RJ. Coping with the stress of chronic childhood illness. In O’Quinn AN, ed. Management of Chronic Disorders of Childhood. Hall, Boston, 1985: 1141.
81. McCubbin, HI, Patterson, J. The family stress process: the double ABCX model of adjustment and adaptation. Marriage Fam Rev 1983; 6: 737.
82. McEwen, BS. Stress, adaptation, and disease. Allostasis and allostatic load. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1998; 840: 3344.
83. Juster, RP, McEwen, BS, Lupien, SJ. Allostatic load biomarkers of chronic stress and impact on health and cognition. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2010; 35: 216.
84. McEwen, BS. Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators. N Engl J Med 1998; 338: 171179.
85. Ramey, S, Schafer, P, DeClerque, J, et al. The preconception stress and resiliency pathways model: a multi-level framework on maternal, paternal, and child health disparities derived by community-based participatory research. Matern Child Health J 2015; 19: 707719.
86. Dunkel Schetter, C, Dolbier, C. Resilience in the context of chronic stress and health in adults. Soc Personal Psychol Compass 2011; 5: 634652.
87. Kim, DR, Bale, TL, Epperson, CN. Prenatal programming of mental illness: current understanding of relationship and mechanisms. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2015; 17: 5.
88. Gee, GC, Payne-Sturges, DC. Environmental health disparities: a framework integrating psychosocial and environmental concepts. Environ Health Perspect 2004; 112: 16451653.
89. Kaugars, A, Shields, C, Brosig, C. Stress and quality of life among parents of children with congenital heart disease referred for psychological services. Congenit Heart Dis 2017; 13: 7278.
90. Werner, H, Latal, B, Valsangiacomo Buechel, E, Beck, I, Landolt, MA. The impact of an infant’s severe congenital heart disease on the family: a prospective cohort study. Congenit Heart Dis 2014; 9: 203210.
91. Koehler, A, Fagnano, M, Montes, G, Halterman, J. Elevated burden for caregivers of children with persistent asthma and a developmental disability. Matern Child Health J 2014; 18: 20802088.
92. Solberg, O, Dale, MT, Holmstrom, H, Eskedal, LT, Landolt, MA, Vollrath, ME. Emotional reactivity in infants with congenital heart defects and maternal symptoms of postnatal depression. Arch Womens Ment Health 2011; 14: 487492.
93. Solberg, O, Gronning Dale, MT, Holmstrom, H, Eskedal, LT, Landolt, MA, Vollrath, ME. Trajectories of maternal mental health: a prospective study of mothers of infants with congenital heart defects from pregnancy to 36 months postpartum. J Pediatr Psychol 2012; 37: 687696.
94. Lawoko, S, Soares, JJF. Social support among parents of children with congenital heart disease, parents of children with other diseases and parents of healthy children. Scand J Occup Ther 2003; 10: 177187.
95. Turan, T, Basbakkal, Z, Ozbek, S. Effect of nursing interventions on stressors of parents of premature infants in neonatal intensive care unit. J Clin Nurs 2008; 17: 28562866.
96. Vander Haegen, M, Luminet, O. Stress, psychosocial mediators, and cognitive mediators in parents of child cancer patients and cancer survivors: attention and working memory pathway perspectives. J Psychosoc Oncol 2015; 33: 504550.
97. Re, J, Dean, S, Menahem, S. Infant cardiac surgery: mothers tell their story: a therapeutic experience. World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg 2013; 4: 278285.
98. Lawoko, S, Soares, JJF. Distress and hopelessness among parents of children with congenital heart disease, parents of children with other diseases, and parents of healthy children. J Psychosom Res 2002; 52: 193208.
99. Ahn, JA, Lee, S, Choi, JY. Comparison of coping strategy and disease knowledge in dyads of parents and their adolescent with congenital heart disease. J Cardiovascular Nurs 2014; 29: 508516.
100. Lee, S, Yoo, JS, Yoo, IY. Parenting stress in mothers of children with congenital heart disease. Asian Nurs Res 2007; 1: 116124.
101. Anderson, LS, Riesch, SK, Pridham, KA, Lutz, KF, Becker, PT. Furthering the understanding of parent-child relationships: a nursing scholarship review series. Part 4: parent-child relationships at risk. J Spec Pediatr Nurs 2010; 15: 111134.
102. Stremler, R, Haddad, S, Pullenayegum, E, Parshuram, C. Psychological outcomes in parents of critically ill hospitalized children. J Pediatr Nurs 2017; 34: 3643.
103. Bruce, E, Lilja, C, Sundin, K. Mothers’ lived experiences of support when living with young children with congenital heart defects. J Spec Pediatr Nurs 2014; 19: 5467.
104. Harper, FWK, Peterson, AM, Uphold, H, et al. Longitudinal study of parent caregiving self-efficacy and parent stress reactions with pediatric cancer treatment procedures. Psychooncology 2013; 22: 16581664.
105. Streisand, R, Mackey, E, Herge, W. Associations of parent coping, stress, and well-being in mothers of children with diabetes: examination of data from a national sample. Matern Child Health J 2010; 14: 612617.
106. Aftyka, A, Rozalska-Walaszek, I, Rosa, W, Rybojad, B, Karakula-Juchnowicz, H. Post-traumatic growth in parents after infants’ neonatal intensive care unit hospitalisation. J Clin Nurs 2017; 26: 727734.
107. Dawson, G, Ashman, SB, Carver, LJ. The role of early experience in shaping behavioral and brain development and its implications for social policy. Dev Psychopathol 2000; 12: 695712.
108. McCusker, CG, Doherty, NN, Molloy, B, et al. Determinants of neuropsychological and behavioural outcomes in early childhood survivors of congenital heart disease. Arch Dis Child 2007; 92: 137141.
109. Hynan, MT, Steinberg, Z, Baker, L, et al. Recommendations for mental health professionals in the NICU. J Perinatol 2015; 35 (Suppl 1): S14S18.
110. Simeone, S, Pucciarelli, G, Perrone, M, et al. Comparative analysis: implementation of a pre-operative educational intervention to decrease anxiety among parents of children with congenital heart disease. J Pediatr Nurs 2017; 35: 144148.
111. McCusker, CG, Doherty, NN, Molloy, B, et al. A controlled trial of early interventions to promote maternal adjustment and development in infants born with severe congenital heart disease. Child Care Health Dev 2010; 36: 110117.
112. Golfenshtein, N, Deatrick, JA, Lisanti, AJ, Medoff-Cooper, B. Coping with the stress in the cardiac intensive care unit: can mindfulness be the answer? J Pediatr Nurs 2017; 37: 117126.
113. Lion, KC, Raphael, JL. Partnering health disparities research with quality improvement science in pediatrics. Pediatrics 2015; 135: 354361.
114. Ylmaz, HB, Kavlak, O, Isler, A, Liman, T, Van Sell, SL. A study of maternal attachment among mothers of infants with congenital anomalies in Turkey. Infants Young Child 2011; 24: 259266.
115. Sikora, K, Janusz, B. Maternal bond with cardiosurgically treated infant. Qualitative analysis of mothers’ narratives. Dev Period Med 2014; 18: 439446.
116. Boztepe, H, Ay, A, Kerimoglu Yildiz, G, Cinar, S. Does the visibility of a congenital anomaly affect maternal-infant attachment levels? J Specialists Pediatr Nurs 2016; 21: 200211.
117. Goldberg, S, Simmons, RJ, Newman, J, Campbell, K, Fowler, RS. Congenital heart disease, parental stress, and infant-mother relationships. J Pediatr 1991; 119: 661666.
118. Fuchs, A, Mohler, E, Reck, C, Resch, F, Kaess, M. The early mother-to-child bond and its unique prospective contribution to child behavior evaluated by mothers and teachers. Psychopathology 2016; 49: 211216.
119. Treyvaud, K, Anderson, VA, Howard, K, et al. Parenting behavior is associated with the early neurobehavioral development of very preterm children. Pediatrics 2009; 123: 555561.
120. Berant, E, Mikulincer, M, Shaver, PR. Mothers’ attachment style, their mental health, and their children’s emotional vulnerabilities: a 7-year study of children with congenital heart disease. J Pers 2008; 76: 3165.
121. Enlow, E, Faherty, LJ, Wallace-Keeshen, S. Perspectives of low socioeconomic status mothers of premature infants. Pediatrics 2017; 139: 18.
122. Taylor, JY, Washington, OG, Artinian, NT, Lichtenberg, P. Parental stress among African American parents and grandparents. Issues Ment Health Nurs 2007; 28: 373387.
123. Shah, R, Sobotka, SA, Yi-Fan, C, Msall, ME. Positive parenting practices, health disparities, and developmental progress. Pediatrics 2015; 136: 318326.
124. Jacobs, R, Boyd, L, Brennan, K, Sinha, CK, Giuliani, S. The importance of social media for patients and families affected by congenital anomalies: a Facebook cross-sectional analysis and user survey. J Pediatr Surg 2016; 51: 17661771.
125. Agrawal, H, Wright, OK, Carberry, KE, Sexson Tejtel, SK, Mery, CM, Molossi, S. Family perception of unmet support needs following a diagnosis of congenital coronary anomaly in children: results of a survey. Congenit Heart Dis 2017; 12: 721725.
126. Davis, MA, Anthony, DL, Pauls, SD. Seeking and receiving social support on Facebook for surgery. Soc Sci Med 2015; 131: 4047.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed