Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Holes and channels between the ventricles revisited

  • Adrian Crucean (a1), William J. Brawn (a1), Diane E. Spicer (a2), Rodney C. Franklin (a3) and Robert H. Anderson (a1) (a4)...

Abstract

Background

Although holes, or channels, between the ventricles are the commonest congenital cardiac malformations, there is still no consensus as to how they can best be described and categorised. So as to assess whether it is possible to produce a potentially universally acceptable system, we have analysed the hearts categorised as having ventricular septal defects in a large archive held at Birmingham Children’s Hospital.

Materials and methods

We analysed all the hearts categorised as having isolated ventricular septal defects, or those associated with aortic coarctation or interruption in the setting of concordant ventriculo-arterial connections, in the archive of autopsied hearts held at Birmingham Children’s Hospital, United Kingdom.

Results

We found 147 hearts within the archive fulfilling our criterions for inclusion. All could be classified within one of three groups depending on their borders as seen from the right ventricle. To provide full description, however, it was also necessary to take account of the way the defects opened to the right ventricle, and the presence or absence of alignment between the septal components.

Conclusions

By combining information on the phenotypic specificity defined on the basis of their borders, the direction of opening into the right ventricle, and the presence or absence of septal malalignment, it proved possible to categorise all hearts examined within the archive of Birmingham Children’s Hospital. Our findings have necessitated creation of new numbers within the European Paediatric Cardiac Code.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence to: Professor R. H. Anderson, 60 Earlsfield Road, London SW18 3DN, United Kingdom. 00-44-20-8870-4368; E-mail: sejjran@ucl.ac.uk

References

Hide All
1. Soto, B, Becker, AE, Moulaert, AJ, et al. Classification of ventricular septal defects. Br Heart J 1980; 43: 332343.
2. Franklin, RCG. The European Paediatric Cardiac Code Long List: structure and function — the first revision. Cardiol Young 2002; 12 (Suppl. 2): 917.
3. Van Praagh, R, Geva, T, Kreutzer, J. Ventricular septal defects: how shall we describe, name and classify them? J Am Coll Cardiol 1989; 14: 12981299.
4. Mavroudis, C, Jacobs, JP. Congenital heart surgery nomenclature and database project. AnnThor Surg 2000; 69: S1S372.
5. Wells, WJ, Lindesmith, GG. Ventricular septal defect. In: Arciniegas E, ed. Pediatric Cardiac Surgery. Chicago, Ill: Year Book Medical Publishers; 1985.
6. Spicer, DE, Anderson, RH, Backer, CL. Clarifying the surgical morphology of inlet ventricular septal defects. Ann Thorac Surg 2013; 95: 236241.
7. Milo, S, Ho, SY, Wilkinson, JL, et al. Surgical anatomy and atrioventricular conduction tissues of hearts with isolated ventricular septal defects. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1980; 79: 244255.
8. Milo, S, Ho, SY, Macartney, FJ, et al. Straddling and overriding atrioventricular valves morphology and classification. Am J Cardiol 1979; 44: 11221134.
9. Lamers, WH, Wessels, A, Verbeek, FJ, et al. New findings concerning ventricular septation in the human heart. Implications for maldevelopment. Circulation 1992; 86: 11941205.
10. Merrick, AF, Yacoub, MH, Ho, SY, et al. Anatomy of the muscular subpulmonary infundibulum with regard to the Ross procedure. Ann Thorac Surg 2000; 69: 556561.
11. Soto, B, Ceballo, R, Kirklin, JK. Ventricular septal defects: a surgical viewpoint. J Am Coll Cardiol 1989; 14: 12911297.
12. Franklin, RC, Jacobs, JP, Krogmann, ON, et al. Nomenclature for congenital and paediatric cardiac disease: historical perspectives and The International Pediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code. Cardiol Young. 2008 Dec: 18 (Suppl 2): 7080.
13. Costello, JP, Olivieri, LJ, Krieger, A, Thabit, O, Marshall, B, Yoo, SJ, Kim, PC, Jonas, RA, Nash, DS. Utilizing three-dimensional printing technology to assess the feasibility of high-fidelity synthetic ventricular septal defect models for simulation in medical education. World J Ped Cong Heart Surg 2014; 5: 421426.
14. Anderson, RH, Spicer, DE, Henry, GW, Rigsby, C, Hlavacek, AM, Mohun, TJ. What is aortic overriding? Cardiol Young 2014; doi:10.1017. S1047951114001139.

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed