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Effects of inhaled nitric oxide on haemodynamics and gas exchange in children after having undergone cardiac surgery utilising cardiopulmonary bypass

  • Enrique G. Villarreal (a1) (a2), Salvatore Aiello (a3), Lee W. Evey (a1), Saul Flores (a1) and Rohit S. Loomba (a3) (a4)...



For CHD patients undergoing corrective surgery utilising cardiopulmonary bypass, post-operative inhaled nitric oxide has been administered to alleviate pulmonary hypertension. We performed a systematic review and meta-analyses to determine the effect of inhaled nitric oxide on haemodynamics, gas exchange, and hospitalisation characteristics in children immediately after cardiopulmonary bypass.

Materials and methods:

A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify full-text manuscripts in English. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane databases were queried. Once manuscripts were identified for inclusion, a list of all the endpoints in each manuscript was created. Endpoints with data present from two or more studies were then kept for pooled analyses. All endpoints included were continuous variables and so mean and standard deviation were utilised as the effect data for comparison.


A total of eight studies were deemed appropriate for inclusion. There were significant differences with decreases in mean pulmonary artery pressure of −6.82 mmHg, left atrial pressure of −1.16 mmHg, arteriovenous oxygen difference of −1.63, arterial carbon dioxide concentration of −2.41 mmHg, mechanical ventilation duration of −8.56 hours, and length of cardiac ICU stay duration of −0.91 days. All significant variables achieved p < 0.001.


Inhaled nitric oxide in children immediately after cardiopulmonary bypass decreases mean pulmonary artery pressure significantly and decreases the arterial carbon dioxide concentration significantly without significantly altering other haemodynamic parameters. This results in a statistically shorter duration of mechanical ventilation and cardiac ICU length of stay without altering overall hospital length of stay.


Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Enrique G. Villarreal, MD, Research Scholar, Cardiac Intensive Care Unit, Section of Critical Care and Cardiology, Texas Children’s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 6651 S. Main St, MCE 1420, Suite E.1460.31A, Houston, TX, USA. Tel: +1 (312) 282-6935; Fax: +1 (832) 825-2969. E-mail:


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Villarreal et al. Supplementary Materials
Villarreal et al. Supplementary Materials

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Effects of inhaled nitric oxide on haemodynamics and gas exchange in children after having undergone cardiac surgery utilising cardiopulmonary bypass

  • Enrique G. Villarreal (a1) (a2), Salvatore Aiello (a3), Lee W. Evey (a1), Saul Flores (a1) and Rohit S. Loomba (a3) (a4)...


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