Skip to main content Accessibility help

Echocardiography of the tricuspid and pulmonary valve in children*

  • Joseph Kreeger (a1), Timotheus Watson (a1) and William T. Mahle (a1)


Diseases of the tricuspid and pulmonary valve are common in childhood. These include congenital anomalies, acquired lesions, and secondary valve compromise due to left heart disease. A comprehensive and methodical approach to the echocardiographic assessment of these diseases of the tricuspid and pulmonary valve is necessary for best care of children with these conditions.


Corresponding author

Correspondence to: W. T. Mahle, MD, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, Emory University School of Medicine, 1405 Clifton Road, NE, Atlanta, GA 30322-1062, United States of America. Tel: +404 785 1672; Fax: +404 785 6021; E-mail:


Hide All

Presented at All Children)s Hospital Johns Hopkins Medicine 14th International Symposium on Congenital Heart Disease, Saint Petersburg, Florida, United States of America, 15–18 February 2014, Special Focus: Diseases of the Cardiac Valves from the Fetus to the Adult, Co-Sponsor: The American Association for Thoracic Surgery (AATS).



Hide All
1.Hanley, FL, Sade, R. Blackstone, E, et al. Outcomes in neonatal pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum. A multiinstitutional study. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1993; 105: 406423, 424–427; discussion 423–424.
2.Klepetko, W, Klicpera, M, Kronik, G, et al. Functional tricuspid insufficiency: conservative or operative management. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1985; 33: 167172.
3.Zoghbi, WA, Enriquez-Sarano, M, Foster, E, et al. Recommendations for evaluation of the severity of native valvar regurgitation with two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2003; 16: 777802.
4.Khoo, NS, Smallhorn, JF. Mechanism of valvar regurgitation. Curr Opin Pediatr 2011; 23: 512517.
5.Kambe, T, Ichimiya, S, Toguchi, M, et al. Apex and subxiphoid approaches to Ebstein’s anomaly using cross-sectional echocardiography. Am Heart J 1980; 100: 5358.
6.Lundström, NR. Echocardiographic criteria for Ebstein’s anomaly of tricuspid valve. Br Heart J 1980; 44: 231.
7.Brown, ML, Dearani, JA, Danielson, GK, et al. The outcomes of operations for 539 patients with Ebstein anomaly. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2008; 135: 11201136; 1136.e1–e7.
8.Said, SM, Burkhart, HM, Dearani, JA. Surgical management of congenital (non-Ebstein) tricuspid valve regurgitation. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Pediatr Card Surg Annu 2012; 15: 4660.
9.Brili, S, Stefanadis, C, Toutouzas, P. Congenitally unguarded tricuspid orifice associated with underdeveloped pulmonary valve leaflets. Heart 2001; 86: 138.
10.Mohan, JC, Passey, R, Arora, R. Echocardiographic spectrum of congenitally unguarded tricuspid valve orifice and patent right ventricular outflow tract. Int J Cardiol 2000; 74: 153157.
11.Okada, Y, Nasu, M, Nishiuchi, S, Shomura, T. Long-term echocardiographic follow-up of patients with a tricuspid bioprosthesis. ASAIO Trans 1990; 36: M535M537.
12.Thankavel, PP, Gabbert, B, Ramaciotti, C. Double-outlet right atrium associated with hypoplastic right heart structures and aortic stenosis: echocardiographic features. Echocardiography 2014; 31: E163E165.
13.Edwin, F, Kinsley, RH, Mamorare, HM, Govendrageloo, K. The spectrum of double-outlet right atrium including hearts with three atrioventricular valves. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2012; 41: 947949.
14.Barron, JV, Sahn, DJ, Valdes-Cruz, L, et al. Two-dimensional echocardiographic evaluation of overriding and straddling atrioventricular valves associated with complex congenital heart disease. Am Heart J 1984; 107: 10061014.
15.Rice, MJ, Seward, JB, Edwards, WD, et al. Straddling atrioventricular valve: two-dimensional echocardiographic diagnosis, classification and surgical implications. Am J Cardiol 1985; 55: 505513.
16.Baumgartner, H, Hung, J, Bermejo, J, et al. Echocardiographic assessment of valve stenosis: EAE/ASE recommendations for clinical practice. Eur J Echocardiogr 2009; 10: 125.
17.Silvilairat, S, Cabalka, AK, Cetta, F, Hagler, DJ, O’Leary, PW. Echocardiographic assessment of isolated pulmonary valve stenosis: which outpatient Doppler gradient has the most clinical validity? J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2005; 18: 11371142.
18.Houston, AB, Sheldon, CD, Simpson, IA, Doig, WB, Coleman, EN. The severity of pulmonary valve or artery obstruction in children estimated by Doppler ultrasound. Eur Heart J 1985; 6: 786790.
19.Pachirat, O, Seward, JB, O’leary, PW. Absent pulmonary valve: echocardiographic features. Echocardiography 1997; 14: 129134.
20.Sreeram, N, Stumper, OF, Kaulitz, R, et al. Comparative value of transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography in the assessment of congenital abnormalities of the atrioventricular junction. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990; 16: 12051214.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Echocardiography of the tricuspid and pulmonary valve in children*

  • Joseph Kreeger (a1), Timotheus Watson (a1) and William T. Mahle (a1)


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.