Jacobs, JP, Anderson, RH, Weinberg, PM, et al. The nomenclature, definition and classification of cardiac structures in the setting of heterotaxy. Cardiol Young
2007; 17 (Suppl 2): 1–28.
Van Praagh, R, Van Praagh, S. Atrial isomerism in the heterotaxy syndromes with asplenia, or polysplenia, or normally formed spleen: an erroneous concept. Am J Cardiol
1990; 66: 1504–1506.
Van Mierop, LH, Eisen, S, Schiebler, GL. The radiographic appearance of the tracheobronchial tree as an indicator of visceral situs. Am J Cardiol
1970; 26: 432–435.
Partridge, J. The radiological evaluation of atrial situs. Clin Radiol
1979; 30: 95–103.
Landing, BH, Lawrence, TY, Payne, VC Jr, Wells, TR. Bronchial anatomy in syndromes with abnormal visceral situs, abnormal spleen and congenital heart disease. Am J Cardiol
1971; 28: 456–462.
Partridge, JB, Scott, O, Deverall, PB, Macartney, FJ. Visualization and measurement of the main bronchi by tomography as an objective indicator of thoracic situs in congenital heart disease. Circulation
1975; 51: 188–196.
Ivemark, BI. Implications of agenesis of the spleen on the pathogenesis of conotruncus anomalies in childhood; an analysis of the heart malformations in the splenic agenesis syndrome, with fourteen new cases. Acta Paediatr Suppl
1955; 44: 7–110.
Bamforth, SD, Braganca, J, Farthing, CR, et al. Cited2 controls left-right patterning and heart development through a Nodal-Pitx2c pathway. Nat Genet
2004; 36: 1189–1196.
Meno, C, Ito, Y, Saijoh, Y, et al. Two closely-related left-right asymmetrically expressed genes, lefty-1 and lefty-2: their distinct expression domains, chromosomal linkage and direct neuralizing activity in Xenopus embryos. Genes Cells
1997; 2: 513–524.
Meno, C, Shimono, A, Saijoh, Y, et al. Lefty-1 is required for left-right determination as a regulator of lefty-2 and nodal. Cell
1998; 94: 287–297.
Hildreth, V, Webb, S, Chaudhry, B, et al. Left cardiac isomerism in the Sonic hedgehog null mouse. J Anat
2009; 214: 894–904.
Uemura, H, Ho, SY, Devine, WA, Kilpatrick, LL, Anderson, RH. Atrial appendages and venoatrial connections in hearts from patients with visceral heterotaxy. Ann Thorac Surg
1995; 60: 561–569.
Wolla, CD, Hlavacek, AM, Schoepf, UJ, Bucher, AM, Chowdhury, S. Cardiovascular manifestations of heterotaxy and related situs abnormalities assessed with CT angiography. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr
2013; 7: 408–416.
Calder, LA. Thoracic situs as an indicator of atrial appendage morphology: a postmortem study of 306 specimens with situs solitus in 250 and heterotaxy in 56 cases. Pediatr Cardiol
2011; 32: 875–884.
Uemura, H, Ho, SY, Devine, WA, Anderson, RH. Analysis of visceral heterotaxy according to splenic status, appendage morphology, or both. Am J Cardiol
1995; 76: 846–849.
Van Mierop, LH, Gessner, IH. The morphologic development of the sinoatrial node in the mouse. Am J Cardiol
1970; 25: 204–212.
Van Mierop, LH GI, Gessner, IH, Schiebler, GL. Asplenia and polysplenia syndromes. Birth Defects
1972; 8: 26–44.
Macartney, FJ, Zuberbuhler, JR, Anderson, RH. Morphological considerations pertaining to recognition of atrial isomerism. Consequences for sequential chamber localisation. Br Heart J
1980; 44: 657–667.
Ho, SY, Seo, JW, Brown, NA, Cook, AC, Fagg, NL, Anderson, RH. Morphology of the sinus node in human and mouse hearts with isomerism of the atrial appendages. Br Heart J
1995; 74: 437–442.
Seo, JW, Brown, NA, Ho, SY, Anderson, RH. Abnormal laterality and congenital cardiac anomalies. Relations of visceral and cardiac morphologies in the iv/iv mouse. Circulation
1992; 86: 642–650.
Nakhleh, N, Francis, R, Giese, RA, et al. High prevalence of respiratory ciliary dysfunction in congenital heart disease patients with heterotaxy. Circulation
2012; 125: 2232–2242.
Bartz, PJ, Driscoll, DJ, Dearani, JA, et al. Early and late results of the modified fontan operation for heterotaxy syndrome 30 years of experience in 142 patients. J Am Coll Cardiol
2006; 48: 2301–2305.
Peoples, WM, Moller, JH, Edwards, JE. Polysplenia: a review of 146 cases. Pediatr Cardiol
1983; 4: 129–137.
Harden, B, Tian, X, Giese, R, et al. Increased postoperative respiratory complications in heterotaxy congenital heart disease patients with respiratory ciliary dysfunction. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
2014; 147: e1292.
Kurosawa, H, Kawada, N. The conduction system in heterotaxy. World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg
2011; 2: 275–277.
Smith, A, Ho, SY, Anderson, RH, et al. The diverse cardiac morphology seen in hearts with isomerism of the atrial appendages with reference to the disposition of the specialised conduction system. Cardiol Young
2006; 16: 437–454.
Ho, SY, Fagg, N, Anderson, RH, Cook, A, Allan, L. Disposition of the atrioventricular conduction tissues in the heart with isomerism of the atrial appendages: its relation to congenital complete heart block. J Am Coll Cardiol
1992; 20: 904–910.
Ghawi, H, Zghouzi, MM, Emahbes, TM, Awad, SM. Prenatal diagnosis of isolated levocardia and a structurally normal heart: two case reports and a review of the literature. Pediatr Cardiol
2013; 34: 1034–1037.
Jo, DS, Jung, SS, Joo, CU. A case of unusual visceral heterotaxy syndrome with isolated levocardia. Korean Circ J
2013; 43: 705–709.
Liberthson, RR, Hastreiter, AR, Sinha, SN, Bharati, S, Novak, GM, Lev, M. Levocardia with visceral heterotaxy-isolated levocardia: pathologic anatomy and its clinical implications. Am Heart J
1973; 85: 40–54.
Katsuya, S, Yamada, S, Ukita, M, et al. Isolated levocardia: prenatal diagnosis and management. Congenit Anom (Kyoto)
2009; 49: 56–60.
Salomon, LJ, Baumann, C, Delezoide, AL, et al. Abnormal abdominal situs: what and how should we look for?
2006; 26: 282–285.
Imamura, T, Momoi, N, Go, H, Ogasawara, K, Sato, M, Hosoya, M. Rare case of isolated levocardia with polysplenia including normally structured lung without cardiac anomaly. Congenit Anom (Kyoto)
2011; 51: 187–190.
Fukuzawa, J, Haneda, T, Ishii, Y, et al. A case report of isolated levocardia without intracardiac anomalies associated with sick sinus syndrome. Jpn Circ J
1993; 57: 245–250.
Kakura, H, Miyahara, K, Sohara, H, et al. Isolated levocardia associated with absence of inferior vena cava, lobulated spleen and sick sinus syndrome. A case report. Jpn Heart J
1998; 39: 235–241.